General Studies notes for UPSC/IAS, UPPSC and State PSCs

Physical Geography

Celestial Bodies (Stars, Planets, Comets, Meteoroid, Meteorite and Meteor)

A celestial body can be defined as any natural body outside of the Earth's atmosphere. Celestial bodies or heavenly bodies are objects in space ...

Sep 21, 2021 18:41 IST · 4 min read

Earth's Atmosphere: Layers, Composition & Structure

The envelope of gases surrounding the earth is called the atmosphere, it forms a protective boundary between the outer space and the biosphere. ...

Sep 20, 2021 11:35 IST · 7 min read

Alfred Wegener's Continental Drift Theory

Various theories have been proposed to explain the present distribution of oceans and continents. The Continental Drift Theory is considered a pivotal ...

Aug 18, 2021 01:00 IST · 4 min read

What are "Space Hurricanes" and "Auroras" ?

What is Space Hurricane ? For the first time ever, scientists from China's Shandong University have confirmed the existence of 1,00 ...

Jul 13, 2021 08:02 IST · 2 min read
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Medieval History of India

Mughal Emperors in India (1526-1857) : Babur to Bahadur Shah II

The Mughal Empire was founded by Babur (1526-1530), a Central Asian ruler who was descended from the Turco-Mongol conqueror Timur (the founder of the ...

Sep 26, 2021 14:28 IST · 1 min read

Important Leaders Associated with the Revolt of 1857

The Indian Rebellion of 1857 was a major uprising in India in 1857-58 against the rule of the British East India Company, which functioned as a sovere ...

Sep 24, 2021 18:02 IST · 1 min read

Important works of Mughal Emperor Akbar (1556-1605)

Akbar was the son of Humayun and Hamida Banu Begum, born at Amarkot in 1542 AD. He was crowned at Kalanaur in 1556 AD at the young age of 13 ...

Sep 24, 2021 13:04 IST · 1 min read

Departments and Officers under the Mughal Empire

The Mughal Empire stretched from the outer fringes of the Indus basin in the west, northern Afghanistan in the northwest, and Kashmir in the north, to ...

Sep 24, 2021 11:35 IST · 1 min read
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Modern Indian History

Major Revolt and Uprisings under British Rule

After the battle of Plassey in 1757, the political control of the East India Company increased and by the end of the eighteenth century, the British e ...

Sep 24, 2021 17:40 IST · 2 min read

Social and Religious Reform Movements in India

The social and religious reformation was an essential condition for the all-round development of the country on modern lines and for the growth of nat ...

Sep 24, 2021 00:20 IST · 1 min read

Revolutionary Nationalist Movement in India (Organizations and Activities)

Though the Indian freedom struggle post 1857 was largely free of violence, there was a revolutionary movement also aimed at winning India independence ...

Sep 19, 2021 16:18 IST · 7 min read

Important Acts Passed in British India (1765-1947)

Here is a list of important legislation passed in British India under the rule of the East India Company (1765-1858) or in the period of the British R ...

Sep 16, 2021 11:10 IST · 1 min read
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Geography of India

The "Western" and "Eastern" Ghats of India

Western and Eastern Ghats of India and two mountain ranges forming the eastern and western edges, respectively, of the Deccan plateau of peninsular In ...

Sep 28, 2021 17:25 IST · 10 min read

Nuclear Power Plants in India (Operational, Under Construction & Planned)

Nuclear power is the fifth largest source of electricity in India after thermal, hydroelectric and renewable sources of electricity. ...

Sep 21, 2021 14:06 IST · 3 min read

Thermal Power Plants In India with Location and Capacity

Thermal power plants generate electricity by using heat from a fuel source, the heat usually generates steam in a boiler which is then used to run a s ...

Sep 21, 2021 13:38 IST · 1 min read

Hydro-electric Power Plants in India with Capacity

Hydroelectric power is one of the most established and broadly utilized renewable sources of energy. India is 5th globall ...

Sep 21, 2021 13:21 IST · 1 min read
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Indian Polity

Indian Constitution Parts, Schedules and Important Articles

The constitution has a preamble and 470 articles, which are grouped into 25 parts. With 12 schedules and five appendices, it has ...

Sep 15, 2021 10:03 IST · 16 min read

Other Backward Classes (OBCs), NCBC, Creamy Layer and Indra Sawhney case

National Commission for Backward Classes (NCBC) National Commission for Backward Classes (NCBC) is a constitutional body, the 102n ...

Aug 27, 2021 10:40 IST · 5 min read

Appointment of Judges in India: Collegium System

The Supreme Court Collegium, led by Chief Justice of India (CJI) N.V. Ramana has recommended to the government nine names for appointment as apex cour ...

Aug 19, 2021 22:03 IST · 1 min read

What is "Enforcement Directorate (ED)" ?

The Enforcement Directorate (ED) is a law enforcement agency and economic intelligence agency responsible for enforcing economic laws and fight ...

Jun 27, 2021 22:11 IST · 1 min read
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Indian Economy

International Organizations : Headquarters, Reports & Indexes

Internationational Organizations are constituted to form the international agenda, mediate political bargaining and to provide a place for political i ...

Oct 07, 2021 20:56 IST · 1 min read

National Family Health Survey 5 (NFHS-5)

National Family Health Survey 5 The first phase of the fifth round of the National Family Health Survey (NFHS-5) was conducted ...

Sep 28, 2021 13:37 IST · 4 min read

Census 2011 - Basics, Summary and Important Findings

Census is a process of collecting, compiling, analyzing, evaluating, publishing and disseminating statistical data regarding the population. It ...

Sep 28, 2021 10:31 IST · 11 min read

Poverty Estimation in India (Methods and History)

Poverty estimation in India is carried out by NITI Aayog's task force through the calculation of poverty line based on the data captured ...

Sep 18, 2021 19:10 IST · 3 min read
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Most important Species in News : Environment | Prelims 2021

Here is a list of most important species in news for UPSC, UPPSC and other State PSCs Prelims 2021 - The Great Indian Bustard, Egyptian vulture, Asiat ...

Sep 25, 2021 19:28 IST · 1 min read

Red Panda Conservation in India (Project Red Panda)

The red panda is a carnivoran found in the forests of India, Nepal, Bhutan and the northern mountains of Myanmar and southern China. ...

Sep 25, 2021 18:28 IST · 1 min read

Major Biomes of the world

A biome is a large community of vegetation and wildlife adapted to a specific climate they exist in. The seven major types of biomes are Tundra, Ta ...

Sep 25, 2021 17:30 IST · 10 min read

Environment and Ecology Overview

1) Environment Environment means anything that surround us, it includes animals, plants, soil, water and other living (biotic) and non- ...

Sep 04, 2021 04:31 IST · 7 min read
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Agricultural Revolutions in India

Agricultural revolution refers to the significant changes in agriculture when there are inventions, discoveries or new technologies implemented. These ...

Sep 21, 2021 06:59 IST · 1 min read

Genetically modified crops (GM crops) in India

Genetically modified crops (GM crops) are plants used in agriculture, the DNA of wh ...

Aug 06, 2021 09:30 IST · 2 min read

Jute in India : National Jute Board & Jute-ICARE

Jute is one of the most affordable natural fibers, and second only to cotton in the amount produced and variety of uses. Jute is also ...

Aug 03, 2021 09:54 IST · 2 min read

Major crops in India (Rice, Wheat, Sugarcane, Cotton, Silk, Millets etc)

India has various food and non-food crops which are cultivated in three main cropping seasons which are rabi, kharif and zaid. ...

Aug 03, 2021 08:04 IST · 8 min read
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General Science

Important Scientific Salt, Elements, Compounds and Processes

Corundum Corundum is a crystalline form of aluminium oxide (Al2O3) typically containing traces of iron, titaniu ...

Oct 01, 2021 11:00 IST · 22 min read

Electromagnetic Waves (Ultraviolet, infrared rays, X-rays etc)

Electromagnetic waves include different types of waves: visible light, ultraviolet, infrared rays, X-rays and gamma-rays etc. Electroma ...

Sep 27, 2021 14:31 IST · 1 min read

Acids, Bases, Salts and the pH Scale (Properties, Uses etc)

An acid is any hydrogen-containing substance that is capable of donating a proton (hydrogen ion) to another substance. A base is a molecule or ion ab ...

Sep 22, 2021 16:00 IST · 6 min read

Scientific Instruments (Apparatus) and their Usage

A scientific instrument is a device or tool used for scientific purposes, including the study of both natural phenomena and theoretical research. ...

Sep 22, 2021 13:56 IST · 1 min read
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Ancient History of India

Jainism (Vardhaman Mahavira, Digambara, Svetambara etc)

Jainism is one of the world's oldest continuously-practiced religions. It traces its spiritual ideas and history through a succession o ...

Sep 27, 2021 13:25 IST · 3 min read

Buddhism (Gautama Buddha, Schools of Buddhism)

Buddhism was founded by Gautam Buddha in 6th century BC, he was the son of Suddhodhan (king of Sakya republic) and Mayadevi. ...

Sep 26, 2021 16:33 IST · 13 min read

Popular Dance Forms in India (Folk & Classical)

Dance in India comprises numerous styles of dances, generally classified as classical or folk. As with other aspects of Indian culture, ...

Sep 25, 2021 20:44 IST · 1 min read

Music of India (Classical, Folk, Rock, and pop etc)

Indian music encompasses numerous genres in multiple varieties and forms which include classical music, folk (Bollywood), rock, and pop. ...

Sep 25, 2021 20:01 IST · 1 min read
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World Geography

Volcanoes around the World (Facts, Information & Distribution)

A volcano is a rupture (a sudden bursting or breaking) in the crust of a planetar-mass object, such as Earth, that allows hot lava, volcanic ...

Sep 29, 2021 11:36 IST · 1 min read

Local names of shifting cultivation around the world

Shifting cultivation is an agricultural system in which a person uses a piece of land, only to abandon or alter the initial use a short time later. ...

Sep 21, 2021 18:36 IST · 1 min read

Major Industrial Regions of the World

Industrial regions are those areas, where concentration of industries has occurred due to favorable geo-economic conditions. Here is a ...

Sep 21, 2021 16:59 IST · 24 min read

Important Oceanic Trenches of the World

Oceanic trenches are topographic depressions of the seafloor, relatively narrow in width, but very long. These oceanographic features ...

Sep 21, 2021 08:04 IST · 1 min read
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Current Events

Government Schemes with their launch date, ministry etc (2014-2021)

Indian Government, at all levels, announces Welfare Schemes for a cross section of the society from time to time. In this section, we h ...

Oct 13, 2021 21:13 IST · 1 min read
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