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General Studies Notes for IAS/PCS, Banking, IBPS, SSC & Railway etc

This section covers Free Notes & Study Material for UPSC, IAS/PCS, Banking, IBPS, SSC, Railway, UPPSC, RPSC, BPSC, MPPSC, TNPSC, MPSC, KPSC and other competition exams.

Physical Geography

Pressure Belts, ITCZ & Winds (Trade winds, Sea Breeze, Local Winds etc)

Differential heating of the Earths surface results in equatorial regions receiving more heat than the poles. The earths atmosphere redistributes t ...

May 04, 2022 · 6 min read

Heat Budget & Surface Heating of Earth

The balance of incoming and outgoing heat on Earth is referred to as its heat budget. Out of all of the solar energy reaching the Earth, about 30% ...

May 04, 2022 · 3 min read

What Is Plate Tectonics theory ?

The Plate Tectonics theory was first published by W.J Morgan of the Princeton University in 1962, it is based on the concept of Hesss seafloor spreadi ...

May 04, 2022 · 6 min read

What Is Sea Floor Spreading theory ?

During WW II, it was discovered that the ocean floor had some unique relief features like mountain ranges, plains, canyons, submarine ridges, deep tre ...

May 04, 2022 · 3 min read
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Medieval History of India

Books written in Medieval Indian and their Authors

The literature of Medieval India was composed of religious writings as well as secular works. It is a complex and rich field of study, from the utterl ...

Mar 09, 2022 · 4 min read

Chronology of Important events in Medieval Indian History

Early Medieval Period (650-1206) After Harshavardhana, the Rajputas emerged as a powerful force in Northern India and dominated the Indian politica ...

Feb 11, 2022 · 9 min read

What was "Mansabdari System in Mughal Administration" ?

The Mansabdari system was the administrative system introduced by Akbar (1156-1605) with the help of Shahbaz Khan in 1571. The system determined th ...

Feb 11, 2022 · 3 min read

Departments and Officers under the Mughal Empire

The Mughal Empire stretched from the outer fringes of the Indus basin in the west, northern Afghanistan in the northwest, and Kashmir in the north, to ...

Feb 11, 2022 · 4 min read
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Modern Indian History

Chronology of Important events in Modern Indian History

Advent of European The Portuguese were the first to discover a direct sea route to India. The arrival of the British and the establishment of Briti ...

May 27, 2022 · 26 min read

Books, Magazine and Newspapers written by Indian Freedom Fighters

Our freedom fighters wrote many books to propagate their ideologies and motivate people to participate in the freedom struggle. Hickys Bengal Gazett ...

May 23, 2022 · 6 min read

Cabinet Mission to Partition & Independence (1946-47)

PM Attlee cited several reasons for leaving India, the most important of which were the INA activities of Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose, which weakened t ...

May 23, 2022 · 5 min read

Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose : The forgotten Hero

Subhas Bose was born into wealth and privilege in a large Bengali family in Cuttack, Orissa on 23 January 1897. The early recipient of an anglo-cent ...

May 23, 2022 · 4 min read
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Geography of India

Major Thermal Power Plants In India with Location

The total installed power generation capacity in India is 399.467 GW. [March 2022] Hydroelectric power plants with ≤ 25 MW (0.025 GW) generation c ...

May 08, 2022 · 9 min read

Nuclear Power Plants in India (Operational, Under Construction & Planned)

Nuclear energy is a clean, environment friendly base load source of power available 24X7. Nuclear power is the fifth-largest source of electricity in ...

May 08, 2022 · 4 min read

Major Valleys in India and their Location

A valley is an elongated low area often running between hills or mountains, which will typically contain a river or stream running from one end to the ...

May 08, 2022 · 5 min read

Important Institutions in India with Location (City/State)

Listed below are some of the Important Institutions in India along with their location (City/State). ...

May 08, 2022 · 23 min read
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Indian Polity

Indian Constitution Parts, Schedules and Important Articles

The constitution has a preamble and 470 articles, which are grouped into 25 parts. With 12 schedules and five appendices, it has been amended 104 time ...

Apr 14, 2022 · 19 min read

Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI)

The Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI) is the premier investigating agency of India. It operates under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Perso ...

Apr 04, 2022 · 1 min read

National Commission for Scheduled Tribes (NCST)

National Commission for Scheduled Tribes (NCST) is a constitutional body that was established through Constitution (89th Amendment) Act, 2003. NCST w ...

Mar 25, 2022 · 1 min read

Attorney General for India (Article 76)

The Attorney General for India is the Indian governments chief legal advisor, and is its principal Advocate before the Supreme Court of India. They ...

Mar 23, 2022 · 2 min read
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Indian Economy

Census 2011 - Basics, Summary and Important Findings

CM Chandramauli was the Registrar General and Census Commissioner of India for the 2011 Indian Census. Census data was collected in 16 languages and ...

May 25, 2022 · 11 min read

Poverty Estimation in India (Methods and History)

Poverty estimation in India is carried out by NITI Aayogs task force through the calculation of poverty line based on the data captured by the Nationa ...

May 21, 2022 · 3 min read

Monetary Policy Instruments and Monetary Policy Committee (MPC) of RBI

Monetary Policy Committee (MPC) was constituted by ammending the Reserve Bank of India Act, 1934 through Finance Act, 2016 - to bring more transpare ...

May 21, 2022 · 5 min read

What is Inflation (WPI & CPI) ?

Inflation refers to the rise in the prices of most goods and services of daily or common use, such as food, clothing, housing, recreation, transport, ...

May 03, 2022 · 2 min read
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Wildlife Protection Act 1972

Parliament enacted the Wildlife Protection Act in 1972, the act provides for state wildlife advisory boards, regulations for hunting wild animals and ...

May 07, 2022 · 2 min read

Protected areas in India (National Parks, Wildlife Sanctuaries and Biosphere Reserves)

Protected Areas in India India has a network of around 868 Protected Areas covering a total of 1,65,088 km2 of geographical area of the country which ...

May 05, 2022 · 12 min read

Tiger conservation : Project Tiger, NTCA and Tiger Census-2018

What is Project Tiger ? Project Tiger is a tiger conservation program launched in April 1973 by the Government of India to stem the dwindling populat ...

May 05, 2022 · 4 min read

Initiatives to protect Environment, Ecology and Biodiversity

The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), created in 1948, is an international organization working in the field of nature conservati ...

May 05, 2022 · 6 min read
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Major crops in India (Rice, Wheat, Sugarcane, Cotton, Silk, Millets etc)

India has various food and non-food crops which are cultivated in three main cropping seasons which are rabi, kharif and zaid. Crop Pattern in India ...

Apr 22, 2022 · 9 min read

Agriculture/Crop Data : Top producing States and Country

The following list creates a summary of top producers of different agricultural crops, top producing state in India and top producer in the world. ...

Apr 16, 2022 · 3 min read

Major Indian Crops: Jute

Jute is one of the most affordable natural fibers, and second only to cotton in the amount produced and variety of uses. Jute is also called the g ...

Apr 16, 2022 · 2 min read

What Is Silk ? (Indian Silk Industry, Central Silk Board (CSB) etc)

Silk is a natural protein fiber, some forms of which can be woven into textiles. The protein fiber of silk is composed mainly of fibroin and is prod ...

Apr 16, 2022 · 1 min read
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General Science

Electromagnetic Waves (Ultraviolet, infrared rays, X-rays etc)

Electromagnetic waves include different types of waves: visible light, ultraviolet, infrared rays, X-rays and gamma-rays etc. Electromagnetic Spectru ...

May 19, 2022 · 3 min read

Acid Rain : Causes, Effects and Solutions

Acid rain is a form of precipitation with acidic components, such as Sulfuric acid (H2SO4) or Nitric acid (HNO3) that fall to the ground from the atmo ...

May 16, 2022 · 1 min read

Chemistry Miscellaneous (Elements, Compounds and Processes) - III

More reactive metals have a greater tendency to lose electrons and form positive ions. Reactivity: Potassium > Sodium > Lithium > Barium > Strontium ...

May 16, 2022 · 9 min read

Chemistry Miscellaneous (Elements, Compounds and Processes) - I

A chemical compound is a chemical substance composed of many identical molecules (or molecular entities) composed of atoms from more than one element ...

May 16, 2022 · 11 min read
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Ancient History of India

Important Harappan (Indus Valley) Sites in India

The Indus Valley Civilization was established around 3300 BC, it flourished between 2600 BC and 1900 BC (Mature Indus Valley Civilization) and started ...

May 23, 2022 · 5 min read

Mahajanapadas with their capital and modern day location

The Mahajanapada were sixteen kingdoms or oligarchic republics that existed in Northern ancient India from the 600-400 BCE during the second urbanisat ...

Feb 11, 2022 · 2 min read

Officers under the Maurya Empire (322-185 BC)

The Maurya Empire was a geographically extensive Iron Age historical power based in Magadha and founded by Chandragupta Maurya, which dominated the In ...

Feb 11, 2022 · 3 min read

Jainism (Vardhaman Mahavira, Digambara, Svetambara etc)

Jainism is one of the worlds oldest continuously-practiced religions. It traces its spiritual ideas and history through a succession of twenty-four ...

Sep 27, 2021 · 3 min read
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Current Affairs

Government Schemes with their launch date, ministry etc (2014-2022)

Indian Government, at all levels, announces Welfare Schemes for a cross section of the society from time to time. In this section, we have attempted ...

Mar 24, 2022 · 11 min read
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World Geography

Major Local Winds around the World

Local winds result from air moving between small low and high pressure systems. They are more localized in their extent and covers limited horizonta ...

May 10, 2022 · 3 min read

Major Straits of the world (With related Map)

A strait is a thin channel of a waterway that connects two large water bodies. Here is a list of Major Straits of the world: Malacca Strait Contiguo ...

May 10, 2022 · 2 min read

Important Oceanic Trenches of the World

Oceanic trenches are topographic depressions of the seafloor, relatively narrow in width, but very long. These oceanographic features are the deepes ...

May 10, 2022 · 3 min read

Major Grasslands of the World with Location

Grasslands and areas in which the vegetation is dominated by a nearly continuous cover of grasses. Grasslands are found where there is not enough re ...

May 10, 2022 · 2 min read
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