Notes & Study Material for UPSC/IAS, State PCS and other government exams

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Poverty Estimation in India (Methods and History)

Poverty Estimation in India (Methods and History)

Poverty estimation in India is carried out by NITI Aayog's task force through the calculation of poverty line based on the data captured by the National Sample Survey Office (NS...

Oct 02, 2022 · 3 min read
Major soils in India - Classification and Properties

Major soils in India - Classification and Properties

The soil is formed when rocks are broken down by the action of wind, water and climate. The characteristic features of a soil depend upon the rocks from which it has been fo...

Oct 02, 2022 · 12 min read
Most prominent Mountain Ranges in the World

Most prominent Mountain Ranges in the World

A mountain range or hill range is a series of mountains or hills ranged in a line and connected by high ground. The mid-ocean ridge is the longest mountain range on Earth. ...

Oct 02, 2022 · 1 min read
Major tribes in India and the World

Major tribes in India and the World

A tribe is a social division in a traditional society consisting of families linked by social, economic, religious, or blood ties, with a common culture and dialect. A tribe posses...

Oct 02, 2022 · 1 min read
Important Glaciers in India (Diamir, Siachen, Gangotri etc)

Important Glaciers in India (Diamir, Siachen, Gangotri etc)

A glacier is a persistent body of dense ice that is constantly moving under its own weight. A glacier forms where the accumulation of snow exceeds its ablation over many years, often centuries. ...

Oct 02, 2022 · 1 min read
Peninsular Rivers in India (Narmada, Godavari, Krishna, Kaveri etc)

Peninsular Rivers in India (Narmada, Godavari, Krishna, Kaveri etc)

Peninsula rivers are much older than the Himalayan rivers, they are non-perennial rivers with a maximum discharge in the rainy season. The rivers are characterized by...

Oct 02, 2022 · 5 min read
Local names of shifting cultivation around the world

Local names of shifting cultivation around the world

Shifting cultivation is an agricultural system in which a person uses a piece of land, only to abandon or alter the initial use a short time later. This system often involves cle...

Oct 02, 2022 · 1 min read
List of Governor-Generals (1773 - 1858) and Viceroys (1858 - 1948) of India

List of Governor-Generals (1773 - 1858) and Viceroys (1858 - 1948) of India

The Governor-General of India was the representative of the monarch of the United Kingdom and after Indian independence in 1947, the representative of the Indian head of state. The...

Oct 02, 2022 · 1 min read
Important Legislations passed in India during British rule

Important Legislations passed in India during British rule

Here is a list of important legislation passed in British India under the rule of the East India Company (1765-1858) or in the period of the British Raj (1858-1947). ...

Oct 02, 2022 · 1 min read
Social and Religious Reform Movements in India

Social and Religious Reform Movements in India

The social and religious reformation was an essential condition for the all-round development of the country on modern lines and for the growth of national unity and solidarity. In ...

Oct 02, 2022 · 1 min read
Genetically modified crops (GM crops) in India

Genetically modified crops (GM crops) in India

Genetically modified crops (GM crops) are plants used in agriculture, the DNA of which has been modified using genetic engineeri...

Aug 26, 2022 · 2 min read
The Himalayas - Formation and Regional Divisions

The Himalayas - Formation and Regional Divisions

The Himalayas are the world's youngest and highest mountain range extended almost uninterrupted for a distance of 2,500 km and covering an area of around 5 Lakh square km. ...

Aug 26, 2022 · 12 min read
Environment and Ecology

Environment and Ecology

1) Environment Environment means anything that surround us, it includes animals, plants, soil, water and other living (biotic) and non-living (abiotic) things, physical, chemical an...

Aug 26, 2022 · 7 min read
Other Backward Classes (OBCs), NCBC, Creamy Layer and Indra Sawhney case

Other Backward Classes (OBCs), NCBC, Creamy Layer and Indra Sawhney case

National Commission for Backward Classes (NCBC) National Commission for Backward Classes (NCBC) is a constitutional body, the 102nd Constitution Amendment Act, 2018 provi...

Aug 26, 2022 · 5 min read
Chemistry Miscellaneous (Elements, Compounds and Processes) - III

Chemistry Miscellaneous (Elements, Compounds and Processes) - III

More reactive metals have a greater tendency to lose electrons and form positive ions. Reactivity: Potassium > Sodium > Lithium > Barium > Strontium > Calcium > Magnes...

Aug 26, 2022 · 9 min read