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Census 2011 - Basics, Summary and Important Findings

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Census is a process of collecting, compiling, analyzing, evaluating, publishing and disseminating statistical data regarding the population. It covers demographic, social and economic data and are provided as of a particular date.

Census is the most credible source of information on: Demography (Population characteristics), Economic Activity, Literacy and Education, Housing & Household Amenities, Urbanisation, Fertility and Mortality, Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes, Language, Religion, Migration, Disability and many other socio-cultural and demographic data.

The delimitation of constituencies is also done on the basis of the demographic data thrown up by the Census.

Census operations started in India during the period of the Maurya Dynasty.

It was systematized during the years 1865 to 1872, though it has been conducted uninterruptedly from the year 1881 being a trustworthy resource of information.

2011 Census (15th Indian Census)

CM Chandramauli was the Registrar General and Census Commissioner of India for the 2011 Indian Census.

Census data was collected in 16 languages and the training manual was prepared in 18 languages.

Census was conducted in two phases, house listing and population enumeration, Information for National Population Register (NPR) was also collected in the first phase.

The census covered 640 districts, 5,924 sub-districts, 7,935 towns and more than 600,000 villages -the cost of the exercise was approximately Rs 2,200 crore.

In 2011, India and Bangladesh also conducted their first-ever joint census of areas along their border.

India's total population stands at 121 crores (1,210,854,977), which is 17.7% more than the last decade, and growth of females (18.3%) was higher than that of males (17.1%).

India's population grew by 17.7% during 2001-11, against 21.5% in the previous decade.

Highest decadal growth in population has been recorded in Bihar (25.4%) while 14 states and Union Territories have recorded population growth above 20%.

Population Total 1,210,854,977
Males 623,724,568
Females 586,469,294
Literacy Total 74%
Males 82.10%
Females 65.46%
Density of population per km2 382
Sex ratio per 1000 males 940 females
Child sex ratio (0?6 age group) per 1000 males 914 females

Literacy rate in India in 2011 has increased by 8% to 73% in comparison to 64.8% in 2001.

The density of population in the country has also increased from 325 in 2001 to 382 in 2011 in per sq km.

The sex ratio of population in the country in 2011 stands at 940 female against 1000 males, which is 10% more than the last census when the number female per thousand male stood at 933.

Child population in the age of 0 to 6 years has seen an increase of 0.4% to 164.5 million in 2011 from 163.8 million in 2001.

There has been a decline of 8% in the sex ratio of 0-6 age group.

Dimension Metric
Most Populous State/UT Uttar Pradesh (19.98 crore)
Dadra and Nagar Haveli
Daman and Diu
Least Populous State Sikkim
Most Populous UT Delhi
Least Populous UT Lakshadweep
Rural Population Uttar Pradesh
West Bengal
Urban Population Maharashtra
Uttar Pradesh
Tamil Nadu.
Literacy Kerala (94%)
Dadra and Nagar Haveli (Least in UT)
Arunachal Pradesh
Bihar (61.80%)
Area Rajasthan (342,239 km2)
Madhya Pradesh
Andaman and Nicobar Islands (Most UT)
Goa (Least in State)
Chandigarh (114 km2)
Daman and Diu (112 km2)
Lakshadweep (32 km2)
Population Density Delhi (11,297/km2)
Daman and Diu
Bihar (Most in State)
Andaman and Nicobar Islands
Arunachal Pradesh (17/km2)
Decadal Growth Dadra and Nagar Haveli (55.5%)
Daman and Diu
Meghalaya (Most in State)
Lakshadweep (Least in UT)
Kerala (4.9%)
Nagaland (-0.5%)
Sex Ratio
(Females per 1000 males)
Kerala (1,084)
Puducherry (Most in UT)
Tamil Nadu
Haryana (Least in State)
Dadra and Nagar Haveli
Daman and Diu (618)
Highest Child (0-6) Sex Ratio Mizoram (971)
Lowest Child (0-6) Sex Ratio Haryana (830)

According to the Census, SCs are notified in 31 states and UTs and STs in 30 states.

There are altogether 1,241 individual ethnic groups, etc. notified as SC's in different states and UT?s. The number of individual ethnic groups, etc. notified as ST's is 705.

The SC population in India now stands at 20.14 crore, which is 20% more than the last census. The ST population stands at 10.43 crore in 2011 - 23.7% more than 2001.

Dimension SCs STs
Notified in States and UTs 31 30
Ethnic groups 1,241 705
Population 20.14 crore 10.43 crore
Increate in Population 20% 23.7%

For the first time, a "No religion" category was added in the 2011 census. 28.7 Lakh (0.24%) Were classified as people belonging to "No Religion" in India in the 2011 census.

There are six religions in India that have been awarded "National Minority" status - Muslims, Christians, Sikhs, Jains, Buddhists and Parsis.

The median age increased for men from 22.6 (2001) to 23.5 (2011) and for women from 18.2 (2001) to 19.2 (2011).

% 1951
% 2001
% 2011
Hinduism 84.1% 80.46% 79.80%
Islam 9.8% 13.43% 14.23%
Christianity 2.3% 2.34% 2.30%
Sikhism 1.79% 1.87% 1.72%
Buddhism 0.74% 0.77% 0.70%
Jainism 0.46% 0.41% 0.37%
Zoroastrianism 0.13% 0.06% n/a
Other religions / No religion 0.8% 0.8% 0.9%

Hindi is the most widely spoken language in northern parts of India.

According to 2011 Census, 57.1% of Indian population know Hindi, in which 43.63% of Indian people have declared Hindi as their native language or mother tongue.

Bhili/Bhilodi was the most spoken unscheduled language with 1.04 crore speakers, followed by Gondi with 0.29 crore speakers.

The number of bilingual speakers in India is 31.49 crore, which is 26% of the population in 2011.

Hindi, Bengali speakers are India's least multilingual groups.

Language Total speakers Total speakers (%)
Hindi 692,000,000 57.1
English 129,000,000 10.6
Bengali 107,000,000 8.9
Marathi 99,000,000 8.2
Telugu 95,000,000 7.8
Tamil 77,000,000 6.3
Urdu 63,000,000 5.2
Gujarati 60,000,000 5
Kannada 59,000,000 4.94
Odia 43,000,000 3.56
Punjabi 36,600,000 3
Malayalam 36,000,000 2.9
Sanskrit 3,190,000 0.19

Socio Economic and Caste Census 2011

The Socio Economic and Caste Census 2011 (SECC) was conducted for the 2011 Census of India.

The SECC 2011 was conducted in all states and union territories of India and the first findings were revealed on 3 July 2015 by Union Finance Minister Arun Jaitley.

SECC 2011 is also the first paperless census in India conducted on hand-held electronic devices by the government in 640 districts.

The rural development ministry has taken a decision to use the SECC data in all its programmes such as MGNREGA, National Food Security Act, and the Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Grameen Kaushalya Yojana.

SECC 2011 was the first caste-based census since 1931 Census of India, and it was launched on 29 June 2011 from the Sankhola village of Hazemara block in West Tripura district.

The first caste census was conducted in the year 1881.

Data was also collected on manual scavenging and transgender count in India.

SECC 2011 has three census components which were conducted by three separate authorities, but under the overall coordination of Department of Rural Development in the GoI:

1) Census in Rural Area has been conducted by the Department of Rural Development.
2) Census in Urban areas is under the administrative jurisdiction of the Ministry of Housing and Urban Poverty Alleviation.
3) Caste Census is under the administrative control of Ministry of Home Affairs: Registrar General and Census Commissioner of India.

Caste Census 2011 - Major Findings
Total Households 24.49 crore
Household in Villages 17.97 crore
Landless Households in Villages 5.3 crore (30%)
Village Families live in houses of 1 room 13%
Rural households lack agricultural land 56%
Poor Rural Households 60%
Poor Urban Households 35%
Manual scavenger Households 1.80 Lakh
Highest number of manual scavengers Maharashtra
Rural female population 48%

SECC data 2011 has been referred for analysis by an expert group, headed by NITI Aayog Vice-Chairman Arvind Panagariya. This expert group is set up by the ministries of social justice and tribal development, before making public.

The results of SECC 2011 were released in 2015.

Religion/Caste Category SCs STs OBCs Forward Caste
Hinduism 22.2% 9% 42.8% 27%
Islam 0.8% 0.5% 39.2% 59.5%
Christianity 9.0% 32.8% 24.8% 33.3%
Sikhism 30.7% 0.9% 22.4% 46.1%
Jainism 0.0% 2.6% 3.0% 94.3%
Buddhism 89.5% 7.4% 0.4% 2.7%
Zoroastrianism 0.0% 15.9% 13.7% 70.4%
Others 2.6% 82.5% 6.25 8.7%
Total 19.7% 8.5% 41.1% 30.8%

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