Chronology of Important events in Modern Indian History

Advent of European

The Portuguese were the first to discover a direct sea route to India.

The arrival of the British and the establishment of "British East India Company" was the outcome of the Portuguese traders.

Time Range Event Remark
1498 Vasco Da Gama Welcomed by Zemorin in Calicut (Kerala)
1500 First Portuguese Factory at "Calicut (कालीकट)" by "Pedro Alvarez Cabrel"
1503 First Portuguese "Fortress" at "Cochin (Kerala)" by Albuquerque", was not viceroy at that time
1505 First Portuguese Viceroy was "Francisco de Almeida", known for "Blue Water Policy"
1508 Afonso de Albuquerque was "real founder of the Portuguese Empire in India"
1510 Portuguese conquest of Goa Albuquerque captured the city from the "Adil Shahis (Sultanate of Bijapur)"
1523 First European occupation of "Pondicherry" by "Portuguese"
1537 factory in Hooghly (Bengal) was founded by the Portuguese used as a base for "piracy"
Dec, 1600 English East India Company established At that time, Akbar (1556-1605 ) was the emperor of India.
1602 "Dutch (Netherlands) East India Company" established to trade with India. -
1605 First "Dutch" factory in "Masulipatnam" (Andhra Pradesh) -
1608 "Captain William Hawkins" reached "Surat" with his ship "Hector". to the court of "Jahangir (1605 - 1627)", requesting him to do business in India.
1611 First English factory (temporary) Masulipatnam (Andhra Pradesh) - Jahangir Reign
1613 First English factory (permanent) Surat (Gujarat)
1615 "Thomas Roe" came to the court of "Jahangir" as ambassador of James I. Stayed there till Feb 1619.
1616 "Danes East India Company" was established -
1620 First "Danes (Denmark)" factory at Tranquebar (TN) -
1632 Golden Farman issued to "English" from "Sultan of Golkonda"
1653 Second European occupation of "Pondicherry" by "Dutch"
1661 British received Bombay as dowry from Portuguese
1664 "French East India Company" was established. on the recommendation of Colbert
1667 "French" came to India (last european) and established first factory in Surat During the reign of Louis XIV
1688 English Governor John Child was expelled by Aurangzeb (1658 - 1707)
1690 Kolkata was founded by "Job Charnock"
1715 Farrukhsiyar's Farman - Magna Carta of the Company Valuable privileges in "Gujarat, Bengal and Hyderabad".
1724 Battle of Shakar Kheda between "Nizam-ul-Mulk" and "Mubariz Khan", Subedar of Deccan
1746 Battle of Madras French occupied Madras from British under "Dupleix"
1757 Battle of Plassey a decisive victory of the British over the "Nawab of Bengal (Siraj ud-Daulah)" under the leadership of Robert Clive
1759 Battle of Bedara - between English and Dutch Dutch force was decisively defeated by the British forces
1760 Battle of Wandiwash between "French and British" - British victory
1761 Third Battle of Panipat between "Maratha Empire" and the King of Afghanistan, Ahmad Shah Abdali (Ahmad Shah Durrani)"
1764 Battle of Buxar between "British" and combined armies of Mir Qasim, Nawab of Bengal, Nawab of Awadh, Shuja-ud-Daula and the Mughal Emperor, Shah Alam II
1793 "British" occupation of "Pondicherry" handed over to "France" in "Treaty of Paris (1814)"
1793 Permanent Settlement between the "East India Company (Lord Cornwallis)" and "Bengali landlords" to fix revenues to be raised from land

The Carnatic Wars

The Carnatic Wars were a series of military conflicts in the middle of the 18th century in India's coastal Carnatic region, a dependency of Hyderabad State, India.

Three Carnatic Wars were fought between 1746 and 1763.

Time Range Event Remark
1740-48 First Carnatic War (English-French) Immediate cause was, capturing of French ships by the British.

Battle of Madras (1746)

It ended with signing of the "Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle (1748)"
1749-54 Second Carnatic War (English-French) Inconclusive, Treaty of Pondicherry (1754)
1758-63 Third Carnatic War (English-French) Battle of Wandiwash(1760) - victory of British over French forces.

Ended with Treaty of Paris (1763)

Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle (1748)

The First Carnatic War ended in 1748 when the Treaty of Aix-La Chapelle was signed bringing the "Austrian War of Succession" to a conclusion.

Under the terms of this treaty, Madras was handed back to the English, and the French, in turn, got their territories in North America.

Bengal: Battle of Plassey

The Battle of Plassey (West Bengal) was a decisive victory of the British East India Company over the Nawab of Bengal (Siraj ud-Daulah) and his French allies on 23 June 1757, under the leadership of Robert Clive.

"Battle of Plassey" consolidated British supremacy over India.

Robert Clive is also called the "Heaven born general" and is considered as the founder of British Empire in India.

Time Period Event Remark
1717-1727 AD Murshid Quli Khan Last governor of bengal to be appointed by Mughal Emperor.
1727-1739 AD Shujauddin -
1739-1740 AD Sarfaraz Khan -
1740-1756 AD Alivardi Khan Toppled the Nasiri dynasty of Nawabs and assumed power.
1756-1757 AD Siraj ud-Daulah Last independent Nawab of Bengal. Lost the Battle of Plassey (1757)
1757-1760 AD Mir Jafar
1760-1764 AD Mir Qasim shifted his capital from "Murshidabad" to "Munger (Bihar)"

Battle of Buxar (1764).

Battle of Wandiwash (1760)

The battle was part of the Third Carnatic War fought between the French and British colonial empires.

Having made substantial gains in Bengal and Hyderabad, the British, after collecting a large amount of revenue, were fully equipped to face the French in Wandiwash, whom they defeated.

The French, commanded by the Comte de Lally were attacked by British forces commanded by Sir Eyre Coote, and in the ensuing battle, the French were decisively defeated.

Mysore Kingdom

Mysore was founded and ruled for most part by the Hindu Wodeyar family, initially served as a vassal state of the Vijayanagara Empire.

"Raja Odeyar", secured Srirangapatna in 1610, which was the seat of the Vijaynagar Viceroy.

After the fall of the Vijayanagara Empire in 1565, the Kingdom of Mysore became independent and remained so until 1799.

Wadiyar Dynasty
Time Period Event Remark
1578-1617 AD Raja Wadiyar Exploited disintegration of Vijayanagara Empire in 1565.

In 1610 changed the capital city from "Mysore" to "Srirangapatnam".
1638-1659 AD Kanthirava Narasaraja I -
1673-1704 AD Chikka Devaraja Divided the empire into 18 departments (called Chavadis) and also introduced a coherent system of taxation.
Mysore State
1761-1782 AD Haider Ali Established modern Mysore State.
1782-1799 AD Tipu Sultan Continued the 2nd Anglo-Mysore war, ceded half of his territory in 3 war and died in 4th war.
1799–1868 AD Krishnaraja Wadiyar III British shifted the capital back to the city of Mysore from Srirangapatnam.

Anglo-Mysore Wars

The Anglo-Mysore Wars were a series of wars fought between the Kingdom of Mysore on the one hand, and the British East (Madras Presidency), Maratha Empire and the Nizam of Hyderabad on the other.

Time Period Event Remark
1767-1769 AD 1st Anglo-Mysore War Hyder Ali enjoy some measure of success against the British, almost capturing Madras.

Treaty of Madras (1769)
1780-1784 AD 2nd Anglo-Mysore War Sir Eyre Coote defeated Hyder Ali at the "Battle of Porto Novo (July 1781)" and Arni.

Treaty of Mangalore (1784)
1790-1792 AD 3rd Anglo-Mysore War Tipu Sultan ruled Mysore from Srirangapatnam (Capital), he was defeated and had to sign a humiliating Treaty of Seringapatam(1792).

Tipu Sultan established embassies in Egypt, France and Turkey on modern lines.
1798-1799 AD 4th Anglo-Mysore War Tipu Sultan died in 1799.

Maratha Empire (1674-1818)

The Maratha Empire or the Maratha Confederacy was a power that dominated a large portion of the Indian subcontinent in the 18th century.

The empire formally existed from 1674 with the coronation of Shivaji as the Chhatrapati and ended in 1818 with the defeat of Peshwa Bajirao II at the hands of the British East India Company.

Maratha Empire
Chhatrapati (Emperor)
Time Period Event Remark
1674-1680 AD Shivaji 1st Chhatrapati of the Maratha Empire. Carved out an enclave from the declining Adilshahi sultanate of Bijapur.
1680-1689 AD Sambhaji In 1689, Sambhaji was captured, tortured and executed by the Mughals.
1689-1700 AD Rajaram Constant struggle against the Mughals.
1700-1707 AD Tarabai She proclaimed her infant son, Shivaji II as Rajaram's successor and herself as the regent.
1707-1749 AD Shahu After his death, the ministers (the Peshwas) and the generals carved out their own fiefdoms such as Bhonsle of Nagpur, Gaekwad of Baroda, Sindhia of Gwalior and Holkar of Indore.
Peshwa (Prime Minister)
1713-1720 AD Balaji Vishwanath Balaji Vishwanath was the first of a series of hereditary Peshwas who gained effective control of the Maratha Empire during the 18th century.

He was called the Second Founder of the Maratha State.
1720-1740 AD Baji Rao I Most celebrated personality after Shivaji in the history of the Maratha Empire.

He defeated Nizam-ul-Mulk (Hyderabad) at the "Battle of Palkhed (1728)".
1740-1761 AD Balaji Baji Rao Third Battle of Panipat (1761) - defeat of Marathas by Ahmad Shah Abdali.
1761-1818 AD Later Marathas The Peshwaship was abolished by the British in 1818

Anglo-Maratha Wars

The Anglo-Maratha Wars were three wars fought in the Indian sub-continent between the Maratha Empire and the British East India Company.

Time Period Event Remark
1775-1782 AD 1st Anglo-Maratha War British were defeated, Warren Hastings was governor general.
1803-1805 AD 2nd Anglo-Maratha War Marathas were defeated and accepted subsidiary alliance.

Lord Wellesley was governor general.
1817-1819 AD 3rd Anglo-Maratha War Marathas decisively defeated, Lord Hastings was governor general.

Treaty of Bassein (1802)

The Treaty of Bassein (Maharashtra) was a pact signed on 31 December 1802 between the British East India Company and Baji Rao II, the Maratha Peshwa of Poona in India after the Battle of Poona.

Subsidiary Alliance

The subsidiary alliance in India was planned by Lord Wellesley, but this term was introduced by French Governor Dupleix.

Subsidiary Alliance
1798 Hyderabad (First)
1799 Mysore
1799 Tanjore
1801 Awadh
1802 Peshwa (Marathas)
1803 Scindia (Marathas)
1803 Gaekwad (Marathas)

Anglo-Nepalese War (1814-1816)

The Anglo-Nepalese War (Gorkha War) was fought between the Gorkhali army of the Kingdom of Nepal and the British forces of the East India Company.

The war ended with the signing of the Treaty of Sugauli (Bihar) in 1816 AD, which ceded some Nepalese controlled territory to the EIC.

The British war effort was led by the East India Company and supported by a coalition of native states; the Garhwal Kingdom, the Patiala State and the Kingdom of Sikkim against the Kingdom of Gorkha.

The Kingdom of Gorkha's war effort was led mostly by the Thapa Kaji.

It was faught during the regime of "Lord Hastings".

Treaty of Sugauli (1816)

The Treaty of Sugauli established the boundary line of Nepal, it was signed in 1816 between the East India Company and "Guru Gajaraj Mishra" following the Anglo-Nepalese War of 1814–16.

Punjab: Maharaja Ranjit Singh

After the death of Aurangzeb in 1707, the Mughal Empire fell apart and declined in its ability to tax or govern most of the Indian subcontinent.

The Sikhs had appointed their own zamindars, replacing the previous Muslim revenue collectors, which provided resources to feed and strengthen the warriors aligned with Sikh interests.

The Sikh misls were all under the control of the Khalsa fraternity of Sikh warriors, but they were not united and constantly warred with each other over revenue collection, disagreements, and local priorities.

Towards the end of 18th century, the five most powerful misls were those of Sukkarchakkia, Kanhayas, Nakkais, Ahluwalias and Bhangi Sikhs - Ranjit Singh belonged to the "Sukkarchakkia misl".

Maharaja Ranjit Singh annexed Multan(1818), Kashmir (1819) and Peshawar (1834).

Time Period Event Remark
1792-1839 AD Maharaja Ranjit Singh United the 12 Sikh misls and create the Sikh Empire.
Expel the Afghans in his teenage years.
Capital - Lahore

Got "Koh-i-Noor diamond" from "Shah Suza (Grandson of Ahmed Shah Abdali)" and left it to "Jagannath Temple in Odisha".
June 1839-
Oct 1839 AD
Kharak Singh Kharak Singh (son of Ranjit Singh) was poisoned with white lead and mercury by his wazir Dhian Singh.
1839-1840 AD Nau Nihal Singh Died at the age of 19 on the day of his father Kharak Singh's funeral.
1840-1841 AD Chand Kaur Declared herself regent for the unborn child of her son Nau Nihal Singh.

Murdered by her servants in 1842.
1841-1843 AD Sher Singh Son of Ranjit Singh. Assassinated by Ajit Singh Sandhawalia.
1843-1849 AD Duleep Singh Ranjit Singh's youngest son and last Maharaja of the Sikh Empire.
He died in Paris on 23 Oct, 1893.
1845-1846 AD 1st Anglo-Sikh War Defeat of the Sikh kingdom and cession of Jammu and Kashmir as a separate princely state under British suzerainty.

Battle of Mudki (18 December 1845) - British army won
1848-1849 AD 2nd Anglo-Sikh War Fall of the Sikh Empire, and the annexation of the Punjab.

The Doctrine of Lapse was an annexation policy followed widely by Lord Dalhousie when he was India's Governor-General from 1848 to 1856.

Doctrine of Lapse
Year State
1848 Satara (first)
1849 Jaitpur and Sambalpur
1850 Bhagat
1852 Udaipur
1853 Jhansi
1854 Nagpur
1855 Tore and Arcot
1856 Awadh

Indian independence movement

The Indian independence movement was a series of historic events with the ultimate aim of ending British rule in India.

Time Period Event Remark
1856 "Awadh" was annexed to British Empire by "Lord Dalhousie" by declaring the state as "Maladministered (Misgovernance)"
1856 Widow Remarriage Act by Lord Canning
December, 1856 New Enfield rifle was introduced -
1857 First war of Indian
Revolt due to socio-economic and religious causes.
1 Nov, 1858 Queen Victoria appointed "Empress of India" took over Indian administration under "British crown"
1872 Native Marriage Act or Indian Christian Marriage Act regulating the legal marriage of Indian Christians.
1885 Formation of Congress by "A.O. Hume"
1885-1907 Moderate Phase Pherozeshah Mehta
Dadabhai Naoroji
Surendranath Banerjee
Gopal Krishna Gokhale
Rash Behari Ghosh
Mahadev Govind Ranade
Ananda Charlu
1907-1919 Extremist Phase Lala Lajpat Rai
Bal Gangadhar Tilak
Bipin Chandra Pal
Aurobindo Ghosh
1919-1947 Nationalists Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel
Jawaharlal Nehru
Maulana Azad
C Rajagopalachari
Mohandas Gandhi
Rajendra Prasad
Badshah Khan
1905 Partition of Bengal Announced:19 July 1905 by Lord Curzon

Anti-Partition movement was initiated on 7 August 1905

Implemented:16 October 1905

1905 INC Session - Benares - Gopal Krishna "Gokhale"

Reunited by "Lord Hardinge" in 1911
1906-1908 Swadeshi and Boycott Movement boycott goods people sang "Vande Mataram", Rabindranath Tagore composed: Amar Sonar Bangla

Poona and Bombay: Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Punjab: Lala Lajpat Rai and Ajit Singh, Delhi: Syed Haider Raza, Madras: Chidambaram Pillai
1906 Formation of Muslim League founded by "Nawab Khwaja Salimullah"
1906 INC Session at Calcutta President: Dadabhai Naoroji

Declared self-government or Swaraj as the goal of INC.
1907 Surat Split 1907 INC Session - Surat - Rash Behari Ghosh
1909 Morley-Minto Reforms Separate electorate for Muslims
1915 Gandhi arrived in Bombay Tour of India for first two years and not to participate in any movement.
1915 Defence of India Act 1915 curtailing the nationalist and revolutionary activities during and in the aftermath of the First World War
1916-1918 Home Rule movement Annie Besant and Bal Gangadhar Tilak
1916 Lucknow Pact INC & Muslim League agreed to allow representation to religious minorities in the provincial legislatures.
1916 INC Lucknow Session President: Ambica Charan Mazumdar

Joint session with the Muslim League. Extremists admitted in INC.
1917 Champaran (Bihar) Satyagraha against Indigo planters.
1918 Ahmedabad (Gujarat) Mill Strike first Hunger Strike
1918 Kheda (Gujarat) Satyagraha first non-cooperation movement, no-tax peasant struggle
18 March 1919 Rowlatt Act gave powers to the police to arrest any person without any reason, viceroy - Lord Chelmsford.
13 April 1919 Jallianwala Bagh massacre in "Amritsar" by "General Dyer"
23 Dec 1919 Government of India Act 1919
26 Dec 1919 INC 34th Session in "Amritsar", presided over by Maulana Mohammad Ali
1919-1922 Khilafat and Non-Cooperation Movement Khilafat - Shaukat and Muḥammad Ali
1920 Non-Cooperation Movement by Mahatma Gandhi
1922 Chauri Chaura incident demonstrators attacked and set fire to a police station.
1 January 1923 Congress-Khilafat Swaraj Party by "C R Das (President)" and "Motilal Nehru(Secretary)" Members: N C Kelkar, Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy and Subhas Chandra Bose.

Entry in legislative councils.
1924 INC Belgaum Session President: M K Gandhi
1927 Indian Navy Act last amendment was done in 1957
November 1927 Simon Commission group of "seven" Members of British Parliament to study constitutional reforms.

Opposed by many Indians but supported by B R Ambedkar and Periyar E. V. Ramasamy.

Lala Lajpat Rai suffered a police beating and died of his injuries on 17 November 1928.
August 1928 Nehru Report prepared by "Motilal Nehru" - proposed for the Joint Electorates with reservation of seats for minorities.
December 1928 Jinnah 14 points to safeguard the political rights of Muslims in a self-governing India.
September 1929 Child Marriage Restraint Act (Sharda Act) fixed the age of marriage for girls at 14 years and boys at 18 years
1929 INC Lahore Session President: Jawaharlal Nehru - 26 January to be observed as Independence Day.

Resolution for "Poorna Swaraj.

The flag of India was hoisted by Jawaharlal Nehru on 31 December 1929 on the banks of Ravi river, in Lahore.
26 January 1930 Observance of Independence Day India celebrated first independence day.
March 1930 Dandi March twenty-four day march lasted from - 12 March 1930 to 6 April 1930.
March 1930-1934 Civil Disobedience Movement launched after the observance of Independence Day and commenced with the infamous dandi march.
12 Nov 1930 1st Round Table Conference INC decided not to participate in the conference
5 March
Gandhi-Irwin Pact To ask Gandhi participation in 2nd RTC.
7 Sep 1931 2nd Round Table Conference MK Gandhi represented INC and Sarojini Naidu represented Indian women.
17 Nov 1931 3rd Round Table Conference -
16 August 1932 Communal Award Announced by Ramsay MacDonald - Extended the separate electorate to depressed Classes and other minorities.
14 Sep 1932 Poona Pact Agreement between Mahatma Gandhi and B. R. Ambedkar.
Government of India Act 1935 provisional autonomy
8 August
August Offer To seek Indian's cooperation in World War II
1940-1941 Individual Satyagraha Delhi Chalo Movement, Resultant of August offer and for Freedom of Speech against the war
March 1942 Cripps Mission Failed attempt to secure full Indian cooperation in World War II.
8 August 1942 Quit India Movement Gandhi made a call to "Do or Die"
1944 CR Formula to solve the political deadlock between the All India Muslim League and the INC.
24 June 1945 Wavell plan - Shimla Conference Proposed the complete Indianisation of the Executive Council, but seats were reserved for members on the basis of religion and caste
November 1945 -May 1946 INA trials British Indian trial by court-martial of a number of officers of the Indian National Army (INA) on various charges of treason, torture, murder and abetment to murder, during the World War II.
Feb 1946 Royal Indian Navy mutiny protest against living conditions and food.
March 1946 Cabinet Mission to India Proposed to divide into three administrative groups: A, B and C clusters.
Nov 1946 Formation of Constituent Assembly elected by the 'Provincial Assembly' and served as the nation's first Parliament.
20 Feb 1947 Attlee's Statement British withdrawal from India was fixed as 30 June 1948.
May 1947 Mountbatten Plan Provinces were to be declared independent successor states with the power to choose whether to join the onstituent assembly or not.
22 July 1947 India adopted the National Flag Constituent Assembly of India adopted the National Flag.
15 August 1947 Indian Independence Act 1947 Partitioned British India into the two new independent dominions of India and Pakistan.

Home Rule League Movement

There were two home rule leagues launched.

Tilak launched the Indian Home Rule League in April 1916 at Belgaum (Karnataka).

Annie Besant launched the Home Rule League in September 1916 at Madras (Tamil Nadu).

They had the common objective of achieving self-government in India.

There was an informal understanding between both the leagues wherein Tilak's league worked in Maharashtra (except Bombay), Karnataka, Berar and the Central Provinces.

Besant's league worked in the rest of the country.

Tilak's league had its headquarters in Delhi, it had 6 branches.

Besant's league had 200 branches and was a looser organisation compared to Tilak's.

The two leagues worked closely with one another, but did not merge to avoid friction between both the leaders.

Both the leagues were merged into one in 1918.

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