Chronology of Important events in Modern Indian History
Advent of EuropeanThe Portuguese were the first to discover a direct sea route to India.
The arrival of the British and the establishment of "British East India Company" was the outcome of the Portuguese traders.
|1498||Vasco Da Gama||Welcomed by Zemorin in Calicut (Kerala)|
|1500||First Portuguese Factory at "Calicut (कालीकट)"||by "Pedro Alvarez Cabrel"|
|1503||First Portuguese "Fortress" at "Cochin (Kerala)"||by Albuquerque", was not viceroy at that time|
|1505||First Portuguese Viceroy||was "Francisco de Almeida", known for "Blue Water Policy"|
|1508||Afonso de Albuquerque||was "real founder of the Portuguese Empire in India"|
|1510||Portuguese conquest of Goa||Albuquerque captured the city from the "Adil Shahis (Sultanate of Bijapur)"|
|1523||First European occupation of "Pondicherry"||by "Portuguese"|
|1537||factory in Hooghly (Bengal) was founded by the Portuguese||used as a base for "piracy"|
|Dec, 1600||English East India Company established||At that time, Akbar (1556-1605 ) was the emperor of India.|
|1602||"Dutch (Netherlands) East India Company" established to trade with India.||-|
|1605||First "Dutch" factory in "Masulipatnam" (Andhra Pradesh)||-|
|1608||"Captain William Hawkins" reached "Surat" with his ship "Hector".||to the court of "Jahangir (1605 - 1627)", requesting him to do business in India.|
|1611||First English factory (temporary)||Masulipatnam (Andhra Pradesh) - Jahangir Reign|
|1613||First English factory (permanent)||Surat (Gujarat)|
|1615||"Thomas Roe" came to the court of "Jahangir" as ambassador of James I.||Stayed there till Feb 1619.|
|1616||"Danes East India Company" was established||-|
|1620||First "Danes (Denmark)" factory at Tranquebar (TN)||-|
|1632||Golden Farman||issued to "English" from "Sultan of Golkonda"|
|1653||Second European occupation of "Pondicherry"||by "Dutch"|
|1661||British received Bombay as dowry||from Portuguese|
|1664||"French East India Company" was established.||on the recommendation of Colbert|
|1667||"French" came to India (last european) and established first factory in Surat||During the reign of Louis XIV|
|1688||English Governor John Child was expelled||by Aurangzeb (1658 - 1707)|
|1690||Kolkata was founded||by "Job Charnock"|
|1715||Farrukhsiyar's Farman - Magna Carta of the Company||Valuable privileges in "Gujarat, Bengal and Hyderabad".|
|1724||Battle of Shakar Kheda||between "Nizam-ul-Mulk" and "Mubariz Khan", Subedar of Deccan|
|1746||Battle of Madras||French occupied Madras from British under "Dupleix"|
|1757||Battle of Plassey||a decisive victory of the British over the "Nawab of Bengal (Siraj ud-Daulah)" under the leadership of Robert Clive|
|1759||Battle of Bedara - between English and Dutch||Dutch force was decisively defeated by the British forces|
|1760||Battle of Wandiwash||between "French and British" - British victory|
|1761||Third Battle of Panipat||between "Maratha Empire" and the King of Afghanistan, Ahmad Shah Abdali (Ahmad Shah Durrani)"|
|1764||Battle of Buxar||between "British" and combined armies of Mir Qasim, Nawab of Bengal, Nawab of Awadh, Shuja-ud-Daula and the Mughal Emperor, Shah Alam II|
|1793||"British" occupation of "Pondicherry"||handed over to "France" in "Treaty of Paris (1814)"|
|1793||Permanent Settlement||between the "East India Company (Lord Cornwallis)" and "Bengali landlords" to fix revenues to be raised from land|
The Carnatic WarsThe Carnatic Wars were a series of military conflicts in the middle of the 18th century in India's coastal Carnatic region, a dependency of Hyderabad State, India.
Three Carnatic Wars were fought between 1746 and 1763.
|1740-48||First Carnatic War (English-French)||Immediate cause was, capturing of French ships by the British.
Battle of Madras (1746)
It ended with signing of the "Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle (1748)"
|1749-54||Second Carnatic War (English-French)||Inconclusive, Treaty of Pondicherry (1754)|
|1758-63||Third Carnatic War (English-French)||Battle of Wandiwash(1760) - victory of British over French forces.
Ended with Treaty of Paris (1763)
Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle (1748)The First Carnatic War ended in 1748 when the Treaty of Aix-La Chapelle was signed bringing the "Austrian War of Succession" to a conclusion.
Under the terms of this treaty, Madras was handed back to the English, and the French, in turn, got their territories in North America.
Bengal: Battle of PlasseyThe Battle of Plassey (West Bengal) was a decisive victory of the British East India Company over the Nawab of Bengal (Siraj ud-Daulah) and his French allies on 23 June 1757, under the leadership of Robert Clive.
"Battle of Plassey" consolidated British supremacy over India.
Robert Clive is also called the "Heaven born general" and is considered as the founder of British Empire in India.
|1717-1727 AD||Murshid Quli Khan||Last governor of bengal to be appointed by Mughal Emperor.|
|1739-1740 AD||Sarfaraz Khan||-|
|1740-1756 AD||Alivardi Khan||Toppled the Nasiri dynasty of Nawabs and assumed power.|
|1756-1757 AD||Siraj ud-Daulah||Last independent Nawab of Bengal. Lost the Battle of Plassey (1757)|
|1757-1760 AD||Mir Jafar|
|1760-1764 AD||Mir Qasim||
shifted his capital from "Murshidabad" to "Munger (Bihar)"
Battle of Buxar (1764).
Battle of Wandiwash (1760)The battle was part of the Third Carnatic War fought between the French and British colonial empires.
Having made substantial gains in Bengal and Hyderabad, the British, after collecting a large amount of revenue, were fully equipped to face the French in Wandiwash, whom they defeated.
The French, commanded by the Comte de Lally were attacked by British forces commanded by Sir Eyre Coote, and in the ensuing battle, the French were decisively defeated.
Mysore KingdomMysore was founded and ruled for most part by the Hindu Wodeyar family, initially served as a vassal state of the Vijayanagara Empire.
"Raja Odeyar", secured Srirangapatna in 1610, which was the seat of the Vijaynagar Viceroy.
After the fall of the Vijayanagara Empire in 1565, the Kingdom of Mysore became independent and remained so until 1799.
|1578-1617 AD||Raja Wadiyar||Exploited disintegration of Vijayanagara Empire in 1565.
In 1610 changed the capital city from "Mysore" to "Srirangapatnam".
|1638-1659 AD||Kanthirava Narasaraja I||-|
|1673-1704 AD||Chikka Devaraja||Divided the empire into 18 departments (called Chavadis) and also introduced a coherent system of taxation.|
|1761-1782 AD||Haider Ali||Established modern Mysore State.|
|1782-1799 AD||Tipu Sultan||Continued the 2nd Anglo-Mysore war, ceded half of his territory in 3 war and died in 4th war.|
|1799–1868 AD||Krishnaraja Wadiyar III||British shifted the capital back to the city of Mysore from Srirangapatnam.|
Anglo-Mysore WarsThe Anglo-Mysore Wars were a series of wars fought between the Kingdom of Mysore on the one hand, and the British East (Madras Presidency), Maratha Empire and the Nizam of Hyderabad on the other.
|1767-1769 AD||1st Anglo-Mysore War||Hyder Ali enjoy some measure of success against the British, almost capturing Madras.
Treaty of Madras (1769)
|1780-1784 AD||2nd Anglo-Mysore War||
Sir Eyre Coote defeated Hyder Ali at the "Battle of Porto Novo (July 1781)" and Arni.
Treaty of Mangalore (1784)
|1790-1792 AD||3rd Anglo-Mysore War||
Tipu Sultan ruled Mysore from Srirangapatnam (Capital), he was defeated and had to sign a humiliating Treaty of Seringapatam(1792).
Tipu Sultan established embassies in Egypt, France and Turkey on modern lines.
|1798-1799 AD||4th Anglo-Mysore War||Tipu Sultan died in 1799.|
Maratha Empire (1674-1818)The Maratha Empire or the Maratha Confederacy was a power that dominated a large portion of the Indian subcontinent in the 18th century.
The empire formally existed from 1674 with the coronation of Shivaji as the Chhatrapati and ended in 1818 with the defeat of Peshwa Bajirao II at the hands of the British East India Company.
|1674-1680 AD||Shivaji||1st Chhatrapati of the Maratha Empire. Carved out an enclave from the declining Adilshahi sultanate of Bijapur.|
|1680-1689 AD||Sambhaji||In 1689, Sambhaji was captured, tortured and executed by the Mughals.|
|1689-1700 AD||Rajaram||Constant struggle against the Mughals.|
|1700-1707 AD||Tarabai||She proclaimed her infant son, Shivaji II as Rajaram's successor and herself as the regent.|
|1707-1749 AD||Shahu||After his death, the ministers (the Peshwas) and the generals carved out their own fiefdoms such as Bhonsle of Nagpur, Gaekwad of Baroda, Sindhia of Gwalior and Holkar of Indore.|
|Peshwa (Prime Minister)|
|1713-1720 AD||Balaji Vishwanath||Balaji Vishwanath was the first of a series of hereditary Peshwas who gained effective control of the Maratha Empire during the 18th century.
He was called the Second Founder of the Maratha State.
|1720-1740 AD||Baji Rao I||Most celebrated personality after Shivaji in the history of the Maratha Empire.
He defeated Nizam-ul-Mulk (Hyderabad) at the "Battle of Palkhed (1728)".
|1740-1761 AD||Balaji Baji Rao||Third Battle of Panipat (1761) - defeat of Marathas by Ahmad Shah Abdali.|
|1761-1818 AD||Later Marathas||The Peshwaship was abolished by the British in 1818|
Anglo-Maratha WarsThe Anglo-Maratha Wars were three wars fought in the Indian sub-continent between the Maratha Empire and the British East India Company.
|1775-1782 AD||1st Anglo-Maratha War||British were defeated, Warren Hastings was governor general.|
|1803-1805 AD||2nd Anglo-Maratha War||Marathas were defeated and accepted subsidiary alliance.
Lord Wellesley was governor general.
|1817-1819 AD||3rd Anglo-Maratha War||Marathas decisively defeated, Lord Hastings was governor general.|
Treaty of Bassein (1802)The Treaty of Bassein (Maharashtra) was a pact signed on 31 December 1802 between the British East India Company and Baji Rao II, the Maratha Peshwa of Poona in India after the Battle of Poona.
Subsidiary AllianceThe subsidiary alliance in India was planned by Lord Wellesley, but this term was introduced by French Governor Dupleix.
Anglo-Nepalese War (1814-1816)The Anglo-Nepalese War (Gorkha War) was fought between the Gorkhali army of the Kingdom of Nepal and the British forces of the East India Company.
The war ended with the signing of the Treaty of Sugauli (Bihar) in 1816 AD, which ceded some Nepalese controlled territory to the EIC.
The British war effort was led by the East India Company and supported by a coalition of native states; the Garhwal Kingdom, the Patiala State and the Kingdom of Sikkim against the Kingdom of Gorkha.
The Kingdom of Gorkha's war effort was led mostly by the Thapa Kaji.
It was faught during the regime of "Lord Hastings".
Treaty of Sugauli (1816)The Treaty of Sugauli established the boundary line of Nepal, it was signed in 1816 between the East India Company and "Guru Gajaraj Mishra" following the Anglo-Nepalese War of 1814–16.
Punjab: Maharaja Ranjit SinghAfter the death of Aurangzeb in 1707, the Mughal Empire fell apart and declined in its ability to tax or govern most of the Indian subcontinent.
The Sikhs had appointed their own zamindars, replacing the previous Muslim revenue collectors, which provided resources to feed and strengthen the warriors aligned with Sikh interests.
The Sikh misls were all under the control of the Khalsa fraternity of Sikh warriors, but they were not united and constantly warred with each other over revenue collection, disagreements, and local priorities.
Towards the end of 18th century, the five most powerful misls were those of Sukkarchakkia, Kanhayas, Nakkais, Ahluwalias and Bhangi Sikhs - Ranjit Singh belonged to the "Sukkarchakkia misl".
Maharaja Ranjit Singh annexed Multan(1818), Kashmir (1819) and Peshawar (1834).
|1792-1839 AD||Maharaja Ranjit Singh||United the 12 Sikh misls and create the Sikh Empire.
Expel the Afghans in his teenage years.
Capital - Lahore
Got "Koh-i-Noor diamond" from "Shah Suza (Grandson of Ahmed Shah Abdali)" and left it to "Jagannath Temple in Odisha".
Oct 1839 AD
|Kharak Singh||Kharak Singh (son of Ranjit Singh) was poisoned with white lead and mercury by his wazir Dhian Singh.|
|1839-1840 AD||Nau Nihal Singh||Died at the age of 19 on the day of his father Kharak Singh's funeral.|
|1840-1841 AD||Chand Kaur||Declared herself regent for the unborn child of her son Nau Nihal Singh.
Murdered by her servants in 1842.
|1841-1843 AD||Sher Singh||Son of Ranjit Singh. Assassinated by Ajit Singh Sandhawalia.|
|1843-1849 AD||Duleep Singh||Ranjit Singh's youngest son and last Maharaja of the Sikh Empire.
He died in Paris on 23 Oct, 1893.
|1845-1846 AD||1st Anglo-Sikh War||Defeat of the Sikh kingdom and cession of Jammu and Kashmir as a separate princely state under British suzerainty.
Battle of Mudki (18 December 1845) - British army won
|1848-1849 AD||2nd Anglo-Sikh War||Fall of the Sikh Empire, and the annexation of the Punjab.|
The Doctrine of Lapse was an annexation policy followed widely by Lord Dalhousie when he was India's Governor-General from 1848 to 1856.
|Doctrine of Lapse|
|1849||Jaitpur and Sambalpur|
|1855||Tore and Arcot|
Indian independence movementThe Indian independence movement was a series of historic events with the ultimate aim of ending British rule in India.
|1856||"Awadh" was annexed to British Empire by "Lord Dalhousie"||by declaring the state as "Maladministered (Misgovernance)"|
|1856||Widow Remarriage Act||by Lord Canning|
|December, 1856||New Enfield rifle was introduced||-|
|1857||First war of Indian
|Revolt due to socio-economic and religious causes.|
|1 Nov, 1858||Queen Victoria appointed "Empress of India"||took over Indian administration under "British crown"|
|1872||Native Marriage Act||or Indian Christian Marriage Act regulating the legal marriage of Indian Christians.|
|1885||Formation of Congress||by "A.O. Hume"|
|1885-1907||Moderate Phase||Pherozeshah Mehta
Gopal Krishna Gokhale
Rash Behari Ghosh
Mahadev Govind Ranade
|1907-1919||Extremist Phase||Lala Lajpat Rai
Bal Gangadhar Tilak
Bipin Chandra Pal
|1919-1947||Nationalists||Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel
|1905||Partition of Bengal||Announced:19 July 1905 by Lord Curzon
Anti-Partition movement was initiated on 7 August 1905
Implemented:16 October 1905
1905 INC Session - Benares - Gopal Krishna "Gokhale"
Reunited by "Lord Hardinge" in 1911
|1906-1908||Swadeshi and Boycott Movement||boycott goods people sang "Vande Mataram", Rabindranath Tagore composed: Amar Sonar Bangla
Poona and Bombay: Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Punjab: Lala Lajpat Rai and Ajit Singh, Delhi: Syed Haider Raza, Madras: Chidambaram Pillai
|1906||Formation of Muslim League||founded by "Nawab Khwaja Salimullah"|
|1906||INC Session at Calcutta||President: Dadabhai Naoroji
Declared self-government or Swaraj as the goal of INC.
|1907||Surat Split||1907 INC Session - Surat - Rash Behari Ghosh|
|1909||Morley-Minto Reforms||Separate electorate for Muslims|
|1915||Gandhi arrived in Bombay||Tour of India for first two years and not to participate in any movement.|
|1915||Defence of India Act 1915||curtailing the nationalist and revolutionary activities during and in the aftermath of the First World War|
|1916-1918||Home Rule movement||Annie Besant and Bal Gangadhar Tilak|
|1916||Lucknow Pact||INC & Muslim League agreed to allow representation to religious minorities in the provincial legislatures.|
|1916||INC Lucknow Session||President: Ambica Charan Mazumdar
Joint session with the Muslim League. Extremists admitted in INC.
|1917||Champaran (Bihar) Satyagraha||against Indigo planters.|
|1918||Ahmedabad (Gujarat) Mill Strike||first Hunger Strike|
|1918||Kheda (Gujarat) Satyagraha||first non-cooperation movement, no-tax peasant struggle|
|18 March 1919||Rowlatt Act||gave powers to the police to arrest any person without any reason, viceroy - Lord Chelmsford.|
|13 April 1919||Jallianwala Bagh massacre||in "Amritsar" by "General Dyer"|
|23 Dec 1919||Government of India Act 1919|
|26 Dec 1919||INC 34th Session||in "Amritsar", presided over by Maulana Mohammad Ali|
|1919-1922||Khilafat and Non-Cooperation Movement||Khilafat - Shaukat and Muḥammad Ali|
|1920||Non-Cooperation Movement||by Mahatma Gandhi|
|1922||Chauri Chaura incident||demonstrators attacked and set fire to a police station.|
|1 January 1923||Congress-Khilafat Swaraj Party||by "C R Das (President)" and "Motilal Nehru(Secretary)" Members: N C Kelkar, Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy and Subhas Chandra Bose.
Entry in legislative councils.
|1924||INC Belgaum Session||President: M K Gandhi|
|1927||Indian Navy Act||last amendment was done in 1957|
|November 1927||Simon Commission||group of "seven" Members of British Parliament to study constitutional reforms.
Opposed by many Indians but supported by B R Ambedkar and Periyar E. V. Ramasamy.
Lala Lajpat Rai suffered a police beating and died of his injuries on 17 November 1928.
|August 1928||Nehru Report||prepared by "Motilal Nehru" - proposed for the Joint Electorates with reservation of seats for minorities.|
|December 1928||Jinnah 14 points||to safeguard the political rights of Muslims in a self-governing India.|
|September 1929||Child Marriage Restraint Act (Sharda Act)||fixed the age of marriage for girls at 14 years and boys at 18 years|
|1929||INC Lahore Session||President: Jawaharlal Nehru - 26 January to be observed as Independence Day.
Resolution for "Poorna Swaraj.
The flag of India was hoisted by Jawaharlal Nehru on 31 December 1929 on the banks of Ravi river, in Lahore.
|26 January 1930||Observance of Independence Day||India celebrated first independence day.|
|March 1930||Dandi March||twenty-four day march lasted from - 12 March 1930 to 6 April 1930.|
|March 1930-1934||Civil Disobedience Movement||launched after the observance of Independence Day and commenced with the infamous dandi march.|
|12 Nov 1930||1st Round Table Conference||INC decided not to participate in the conference|
|Gandhi-Irwin Pact||To ask Gandhi participation in 2nd RTC.|
|7 Sep 1931||2nd Round Table Conference||MK Gandhi represented INC and Sarojini Naidu represented Indian women.|
|17 Nov 1931||3rd Round Table Conference||-|
|16 August 1932||Communal Award||Announced by Ramsay MacDonald - Extended the separate electorate to depressed Classes and other minorities.|
|14 Sep 1932||Poona Pact||Agreement between Mahatma Gandhi and B. R. Ambedkar.|
|Government of India Act 1935||provisional autonomy|
|August Offer||To seek Indian's cooperation in World War II|
|1940-1941||Individual Satyagraha||Delhi Chalo Movement, Resultant of August offer and for Freedom of Speech against the war|
|March 1942||Cripps Mission||Failed attempt to secure full Indian cooperation in World War II.|
|8 August 1942||Quit India Movement||Gandhi made a call to "Do or Die"|
|1944||CR Formula||to solve the political deadlock between the All India Muslim League and the INC.|
|24 June 1945||Wavell plan - Shimla Conference||Proposed the complete Indianisation of the Executive Council, but seats were reserved for members on the basis of religion and caste|
|November 1945 -May 1946||INA trials||British Indian trial by court-martial of a number of officers of the Indian National Army (INA) on various charges of treason, torture, murder and abetment to murder, during the World War II.|
|Feb 1946||Royal Indian Navy mutiny||protest against living conditions and food.|
|March 1946||Cabinet Mission to India||Proposed to divide into three administrative groups: A, B and C clusters.|
|Nov 1946||Formation of Constituent Assembly||elected by the 'Provincial Assembly' and served as the nation's first Parliament.|
|20 Feb 1947||Attlee's Statement||British withdrawal from India was fixed as 30 June 1948.|
|May 1947||Mountbatten Plan||Provinces were to be declared independent successor states with the power to choose whether to join the onstituent assembly or not.|
|22 July 1947||India adopted the National Flag||Constituent Assembly of India adopted the National Flag.|
|15 August 1947||Indian Independence Act 1947||Partitioned British India into the two new independent dominions of India and Pakistan.|
Home Rule League MovementThere were two home rule leagues launched.
Tilak launched the Indian Home Rule League in April 1916 at Belgaum (Karnataka).
Annie Besant launched the Home Rule League in September 1916 at Madras (Tamil Nadu).
They had the common objective of achieving self-government in India.
There was an informal understanding between both the leagues wherein Tilak's league worked in Maharashtra (except Bombay), Karnataka, Berar and the Central Provinces.
Besant's league worked in the rest of the country.
Tilak's league had its headquarters in Delhi, it had 6 branches.
Besant's league had 200 branches and was a looser organisation compared to Tilak's.
The two leagues worked closely with one another, but did not merge to avoid friction between both the leaders.
Both the leagues were merged into one in 1918. Related MCQs