Social and Religious Reform Movements in India
The social and religious reformation was an essential condition for the all-round development of the country on modern lines and for the growth of national unity and solidarity.
In 1835, Lord Macaulay successfully westernised education in India; English was made the official language for the government and courts, and was adopted as the official medium of instruction.
The downward filtration theory means that the education was provided to a small portion of the people, and through them, education was conveyed to the masses - it was promoted by Lord Macaulay.
Macaulay came to India in 1834, and served on the Supreme Council of India between 1834 and 1838.
In India Lord Macaulay is fully credited with the official introduction of English education, though the necessary order on the subject was issued by Bentinck, the Governor-General of India, on 7 March 1835.
|Movements||Founded In||Founded By||Details|
|Madrasah 'Aliaya'||1780||Warren Hastings||First madarsa setup by British in India|
|Asiatic Society||1784||Sir William Jones|
|Sanskrit College Varanasi||1791||Jonathan Duncan||First Sanskrit Mahavidyalaya in Varanasi|
|Atmiya Sabha||1815 (Kolkata)||Ram Mohan Roy||first by "Ram Mohan Roy"|
|Young Bengal Movement||1826 (Kolkata)||Henry Vivian Derozio||Derozio was an Anglo-Indian college teacher in Calcutta.|
|Brahmo Samaj (Monotheism)||1828 (Kolkata)||Raja Ram Mohan Roy (1772-1833)||Father of India Renaissance Movement, got title of "Raja" from "Akbar-II". His samadhi is present in Bristol, England.|
|Brahmo Samaj of India||1866||Keshab Chunder Sen||-|
|Dharma Sabha||1829 (Kolkata)||Radhakant Dev||to counter the ongoing social reform movements|
|Independent Labour Party||1836||B. R. Ambedkar||-|
|Tattwabodhini Sabha||1839||Debendranath Tagore||-|
|Paramahansa Mandali||1849 (Bombay)||Dadoba Panderung (1842-82) and
Bal Shastri Jambhekar
|Denied polytheism of popular Hinduism, the caste system and the Brahmanical monopoly of knowledge.|
|Rahanumai Mazdayasanan Sabha||1851||Dadabhai Naoroji,
|The regeneration of the social condition of the Parsis and the restoration of the Zoroastrian religion to its pristine purity.
Rast Goftar (Voice of Truth) was its weekly organ.
Spread of Western education among the Parsis, including girls.
|Nirankari Movement||1851||Baba Dyal Das||-|
|Aligarh Movement||1860s (Aligarh)||Sayyid Ahmed Khan||It focused on spreading western scientific education among the Muslim masses in India.|
|Scientific Society||1864 (Aligarh)||Syed Ahmad Khan||-|
|Muhammadan Anglo-Oriental College||1875||Syed Ahmad Khan||Its given Urdu name was Madrasatul Uloom Musalmanan-e-Hind.
It started operations on Queen Victoria's 56th birthday, 24 May 1875.
|Widow Remarriage Association||1861||Vishnu Shastri Pandit and
Mahadev Govind Ranade
|It promoted widow remarriage and campaigned against child marriages, the heavy cost of marriages and customs-like the shaving of widow's head, etc.|
|Radha Swami Satsang||1861 (Agra)||Tulsiram||Swami Shraddhananda|
|Deobandi Movement||1866 (Deoband)||Mohammad Qasim Nanotavi and Rashid Ahmed Gangohi||uplifting the Muslims through educational efforts.|
|Darul Uloom||1866 (Deoband)||Muhammad Qasim Nanautavi, Sayyid Muhammad Abid||-|
|Prarthana Samaj||1867 (Bombay)||Atmaram Pandurang||It became popular after Mahadev Govind Ranade joined.|
|East India Association||1869 (London)||Dadabhai Naoroji||-|
|Poona Sarvajanik Sabha||1870||Mahadev Govind Ranade,
Ganesh Vasudeo Joshi,
S. H. Chiplunkar
|Working as a mediating body between the government and people of India and to popularise the peasants' legal rights.|
|Sanatan Dharma Rakshini Sabha||1873||-||in "Calcutta"|
|Arya Samaj||1875 (Bombay)||Dayananda Saraswati (1824-1883)||revival of vedas (let's go back to vedas), known as "Martin Luther of India", written "Satyarth Prakash", "suddhi momemnt"|
|Theosophical Society||17 November, 1875 (New York)||Madame Blavatsky and Colonel Olcott||study of ancient Hindu, Buddhist and Zoroastrian philosophies|
|India League||1875||Sisir Kumar Ghosh||Stimulating the sense of nationalism amongst the people.|
|Indian National Association||1876||Surendranath Banerjee and
Ananda Mohan Bose
|Promoting by every legitimate means the political, intellectual and material advancement of the people|
|Satyashodhak Samaj||1873 (Pune)||Jyotiba Phule||against idolatry and the caste system, wrote "Gulamgiri", used the term "Dalit" for the oppressed castes.|
|Deccan Education Society||1880||Bal Gangadhar Tilak||-|
|Bombay Presidency Association||1885||Phirozshah Mehta,
K.T Telang and
|Dev Samaj||1887 (Lahore)||Shiv Narayan Agnihotri||broke from Brahmoism to form his own religious group|
|Bharat Dharma Mahamandala||1887 (Hardwar)||Pandit Din Dayalu Sharma||-|
|Ramakrishna Mission||1897 (Belur near Calcutta)||Swami Vivekananda||Representative of "Neo" Hindustan, wrote - "Raja Yoga, Karma Yoga, Bhakti Yoga"|
|Radhaswami Satsang||1891 (Beas River in Punjab)||Jaimal Singh||-|
|Abhinav Bharat Society (Young India Society)||1904||Vinayak Damodar Savarkar,
Ganesh Damodar Savarkar
|Servants of India Society||1905 (Bombay)||Gopal Krishna Gokhale||Promote education, sanitation, health care, and fight the social evils of untouchability and discrimination, alcoholism, poverty, oppression of woman.
|India House (Indian Home Rule Society)||1905 (London)||Shyamji Krishna Varma,
S. R. Rana
|To promote the cause of self-rule in British India.|
|Social Service League||1911 (Bombay)||Narayan Malhar Joshi||The League opened a number of day and night schools, libraries, dispensaries and started boys’ clubs and scouts corps.|
|Visva Bharati||1912||Ravindra Nath Thakur|
|Gadar Party||1913||Lala Hardayal||-|
|Hindu Mahasabha||1915||Madan Mohan Malviya||To protect the rights of the Hindu community, after the formation of the All India Muslim League in 1906.|
|All India Trade Union||1920||N. M. Joshi||-|
|Swaraj Party||1 January 1923||Motilal Nehru
|Bahishkrit Hitakarini Sabha||1924||B.R. Ambedkar||For removing difficulties of the untouchables and placing their grievances before government.|
|Tarkeshwar Movement||1924 (Calcutta)||-||against corrupt priests|
|Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS)||1925 (Nagpur)||Dr. Keshav Baliram Hedgewar||The RSS is the progenitor and leader of a large body of organisations called the Sangh Parivar which have presence in all facets of the Indian society.|
|Naujawan Bharat Sabha||1926||Bhagat Singh||A left-wing Indian association that sought to foment revolution against the British Raj by gathering together worker and peasant youths by disseminating Marxist idea.
The organization merged with All India Youth Federation (AIYF).
|Harijan Sevak Sangh||1932||Mahatma Gandhi||To eradicate untouchability in India, working for Harijan or Dalit.|
|Manav Dharma Sabha||1844 (Surat)||Durgaram Manchharam Mehta,
Dadoba Pandurang Tarkhadkar
|Mohammedan Literary Society||1863 (Kolkata)||Abdul Latif||Education of Muslim youth in English medium schools that would allow them to compete with their English and Hindu peers.|
|United Indian Committee||1883||Womesh Chunder Bonnerjee||-|
|Indian (National) Social Conference||1887||M.G. Ranade and Raghunath Rao||The Conference met annually as a subsidiary convention of the Indian National Congress, at the same venue,
and focused attention on social reform.
|Women's Indian Association||1917 (Madras)||Annie Besant, Margaret Cousins,
Jeena Raja Dasa
Charles Wilkins, the first translator of the Bhagavad Gita into English opened up Indian culture to the western world.
In the year 1789, Sir William Jones translated Kalidasa's Shakuntala.
Wood's Despatch was introduced in 1854 to spread education in British India. It is called Magna-Carta of English Education in India.
In 1857 Calcutta, Bombay and Madras Universities were set up following Wood's Despatch.
In Hunter Commission (1882) report special emphasis was laid on the development of "Primary Education".
The National Council of Education - Bengal (NCE) was an organisation founded by Satish Chandra Mukherjee and other Indian nationalists in Bengal in 1906 to promote science and technology as part of a swadeshi industrialisation movement.
Sadler Commission (The Calcutta University Commission)of 1917 was set up to study and report the problems of university education.
Women's University, Mumbai is the first Women's university in India as well as in South-East Asia. The University was founded by DK Karve in 1916 for a noble cause of Women's Education.
Ram Mohun Roy, founded the Hindu College in Calcutta, the alumni of which established a large number of English schools all over Bengal.
The Banaras Hindu University was jointly established by Madan Mohan Malaviya, Annie Besant, Maharaja Rameshwar Singh of Darbhanga Raj and Prabhu Narayan Singh of Narayan dynasty, while the university is the brainchild of Malviya.
Swami Vivekananda represented India and Hinduism at the Parliament of the World's Religions, Chicago in 1893.
The Age of Consent Act, 1891, also known as Act X of 1891, was a legislation enacted in British India on 19 March 1891 which raised the age of consent for sexual intercourse for all girls, married or unmarried, from ten to twelve years in all jurisdictions, its violation subject to criminal prosecution as rape.
Tilak said that "if God were to tolerate Untouchability, he would not recognise Him as God at all."
Hali system was related to the bonded labour system. A Haliya is an agricultural bonded laborer who works on another person's land. Related MCQs