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Buddhism (Gautama Buddha, Schools of Buddhism)
Buddhism was founded by Gautam Buddha in 6th century BC, he was the son of Suddhodhan (king of Sakya republic) and Mayadevi (Koliyan Clan).
Buddha asked his followers to avoid the two extremes of indulgence in worldly pleasure and the practice of strict abstinence (परहेज़) and asceticism (वैराग्य) - he ascribed instead the Madhyam Marg or the middle path.
Gautama Buddha (563 BC to 483 BC)Gautama Buddha (Siddhattha Gotama or Shakyamuni) was born in 563 BC on Vaishakha Poornima day in Lumbini (Nepal).
Lumbini as Buddha's birth place is testified by the inscription on the pillar (Rummindei Pillar) erected by the Mauryan Emperor Asoka in 249 BC.
He lost his mother (Mahamaya) just a few days after his birth and was brought up by his stepmother Gautami.
He was married to Yashodhara at the early age of 16 and had a son named Rahula.
At the age of 29, he left his palace and decided to become a wanderer.
He along with Channa, his charioteer and his horse, Kanthaka, wandered for six long years in search of truth (Mahabhinishkramana-महाभिनिष्क्रमण/Great Renunciation).
Buddha first meditated with his teacher Alara Kalama and then Uddaka Ramaputta - but he was not convinced with their teachings that liberation from sorrow can be obtained by mental discipline and knowledge only.
He later joined five wandering ascetics - Assaji, Mahanama, Vappa, Bhaddiya and Kondanna.
At the age of 35, he ultimately attained Nirvana (enlightenment) at Gaya, Magadha (Bihar) under a peepal tree (Bodhi tree), on the banks of river Niranjana and came to be known as the Buddha - the Enlightened One.
The Buddha delivered his first sermon on deliverance from sufferings to his five former companions at Sarnath. This event is known as Dhamma Chakka-Pavattana (धम्मचक्र प्रवर्तन), which means turning the wheel of dharma.
The Buddha wandered about for over four decades, and established an order of monks and nuns known as Sangha.
He attained Parinirvana (महापरिनिर्वाण) at the age of 80 at Kusinara, UP (of the Mallas).
Subhadda became the very last convert and disciple of the Buddha
Buddha is said to have spent his last rainy season in Vaishali.
His last words were all composite things decay, strive diligently.
|Great events of Buddha life|
|Lotus and Bull||Birth|
|White Elephant||Avakranti (conception or descent)|
|Horse||Great Renunciation or Departure (Mahabhinishkramana)|
|Bodhi Tree||Mahabodhi (Nirvana) or Enlightenment|
|Wheel||Dhammachakra Pravartana (First Sermon)|
|3 Jewels of Buddhism (Triratna)|
|Sangha||Order of Buddhist Monks and Nuns (Upasakas)|
Buddha urges that one should not cling (hold on tightly) to anything (including his teachings). His teachings are only Upaya (skillful means or expedient tools) and are not dogma (belief).
The four noble truths form the core of the teachings of Buddhism are:
|Four noble truths|
|Dukha (The truth of suffering)||The world is full of suffering (Sarvam Dukham).|
|Samudaya (The truth of the cause of suffering)||Trishna (desire) is the main cause of suffering.|
|Nirodha (The truth of the end of suffering)||The pain/sorrow can be ended by the attainment of Nibbana/Nirvana (मुक्ति).|
|Ashtangika-Marga (The truth of the path leading to the end of suffering)||The end to the suffering is contained in the eightfold path.|
Ashtangika Marga (Eight-Fold Path)The path consists of eight interconnected activities and is a process that helps one to move beyond the conditioned responses that obscure one's nature.
1) Right Vision (Samma-Ditthi)
2) Right Thought or Attitude (Samma-Sankappa)
3) Right or Whole Speech (Samma-Vacca)
4) Right or Integral Action (Samma-Kammanta): Do not commit violence, Do not covet the property of others, Do not indulge in corrupt practices or sensual behaviour, Do not speak a lie, Do not use intoxicants.
5) Right or Proper Livelihood (Samma-Ajiva)
6) Right Effort or Energy (Samma-Vayama)
7) Right Mindfulness or Thorough Awareness (Samma-Sati)
8) Right Concentration or Meditation (Samma-Samadhi)
Buddhist councilsSince the death of Buddha, Buddhist monastic communities ("sangha") have periodically convened to settle doctrinal and disciplinary disputes and to revise and correct the contents of the sutras.
These gatherings are often termed "Buddhist councils".
Accounts of these councils are recorded in Buddhist texts as having begun immediately following the death of the Buddha and have continued into the modern era.
|First (483 BCE)||Rajgriha (Magadha)||Ajatashatru (Haryanka)||Mahakashyapa||Buddha's teachings were divided into 3 categories or baskets (Pitakas)|
|Second (383 BCE)||Vaishali||Kalasoka (Shaishunaga)||Sabbakami||Division: Sthaviravadins - they felt they were keeping the original spirit of the Buddha's teachings.
(The Great Community) - Interpreted Buddha's teachings more liberally.
|Third (250 BCE)||Pataliputra||Ashoka||Mogaliputta Tissa||Main aim was to purify the Buddhist movement from opportunistic factions.
Sent Buddhist missionaries to other countries.
|Fourth (100 CE)||Kundalavana, Kashmir||Kanishka (Kushan)||Vasumitra||Buddhism divided into "Mahayana" and "Hinayana" sects.|
Schools of BuddhismThe schools of Buddhism are the various institutional and doctrinal divisions of Buddhism that have existed from ancient times up to the present.
1) Hinayana (Theravada) It literally means "The Lesser path" and Theravada signifies "Doctrine of the Elders".
Hinayana is true to the teachings of the Buddha and was the original school of Buddhist philosophy.
It's scriptures are in Pali, doesn't believe in idol worship.
It believes an individual can attain salvation through self-discipline & meditation.
At present, it is found in Sri Lanka, Myanmar, Thailand and other parts of South-East Asia.
Ashoka patronised Hinayana.
2) Mahayana The terms Hinayana & Mahayana were given by the Mahayana school - Mahayana literally means "The Greater Path".
It's scriptures are in Sanskrit - this school of Buddhism considers Buddha as God and worships idols of Buddhas & Bodhisattvas.
Mahayana has two main philosophical schools - the Madhyamika & Yogachara.
It believes in universal liberation from sufferings for all beings, and spiritual upliftment.
Salvation can also be attained by means of faith and devotion to the mindfulness of the Buddha.
It believes in mantras.
3) Vajrayana Vajrayana literally means "Vehicle of Thunderbolt", it is also called "Diamond Vehicle" or "Mantrayana" or "Tantrayana" or "Esoteric Buddhism."
Vajrayana believes that salvation can be attained by acquiring magical powers called Vajra.
Vajrayana was established in Tibet in the 11th century.
The Two Truth Doctrine is the central concept of Vajrayana, the two truths are identified as "Conventional & Ultimate truths".
Conventional truth is the truth of consensus, reality and common sense notions of what does exist and does not exist.
Ultimate truth is the reality as perceived by an enlightened mind.
Vajrayana texts use a highly symbolic language "sandhya-bhasa" or "twilight language", It aims to evoke experiences considered to be most valuable, in their followers.
It also lays importance on the role of Buddhistavas but favours fierce deities known as Taras.
The rituals and devotion employ mantras (esoteric verbal formulas), mandalas (diagrams & painting for visualisation practices) and a complex array of other rituals.
Much importance is given to the role of the guru called Lama who has mastered the philosophical and ritual traditions.
It is predominant in Tibet, Nepal, Bhutan and Mongolia.
BodhisattvaIn Buddhism, a bodhisattva is any person who is on the path towards Buddhahood.
In the Early Buddhist schools as well as modern Theravada Buddhism, a bodhisattva refers to anyone who has made a resolution to become a Buddha and has also received a confirmation or prediction from a living Buddha that this will be so.
In the Tibetan tradition, the following bodhisattvas are known as the "Eight Great Bodhisattvas", or "Eight Close Sons" and are seen as the main bodhisattvas of Shakyamuni Buddha:
1) Manjuusri ("Gentle Glory")
2) Avalokitesvara ("Lord who gazes down at the world")
3) Vajirapani ("Vajra in hand")
5) Kṣitigarbha ("Earth Source")
6) Akaaagarbha ("Space Source")
8) Samantabhadra ("Universal Worthy", "All Good")
The three pitakasThe three pitakas (Tripiṭaka) are Sutta Pitaka, Vinaya Pitaka and Abhidhamma Pitaka.
1) The Vinaya Pitaka consists of rules of conduct and discipline applicable to the monastic life of the monks and nuns.
2) The Sutta Pitaka consists of the main teaching (sermons) or Dhamma of Buddha. It is divided into five Nikayas or collections: Digha Nikaya, Majjhima Nikaya, Samyutta Nikaya, Anguttara Nikaya, Khuddaka Nikaya.
3) The Abhidamma Pitaka is a philosophical analysis and systematization of the teaching and the scholarly activity of the monks. Yamaka belongs to this Pitaka.
Buddhist ScholarsThe objectives of the Buddhist teaching were to secure the salvation of individual or nirvana. The Buddhists created a new language Hybrid Sanskrit by mixing Pali with Sanskrit.
|Asvaghosha||Author of the "Buddhacharita" (Acts of the Buddha) in Sanskrit. Contemporary of Kanishka. He was a scholar, poet, dramatist, musician and debater.|
|Nagarjuna||He is the founder of the Madhyamaka school of Mahayana Buddhism.|
|Asanga & Vasubandhu
|Vasubandhu's greatest work, Abhidharmakosa, is known as an Encyclopaedia of Buddhism. Asanga was an important teacher of Yogachara or Vijnanavada school founded by his guru, Maitreyanatha. Both the brothers spread Buddhism in Punjab in the 4th century AD.|
|Buddhaghosa||The Visuddhimagga - the path of purification, a comprehensive summary and analysis of the Theravada understanding of the Buddha's path to liberation, is considered to be his best work. He was a great Pali scholar.|
|Dinnaga||He is known as the founder of the Buddhist logic, the last intellectual of the fifth century.|
|Dharmakirti||He lived in the seventh century AD, and was a great Buddhist logician, a philosophical thinker and dialectician.|
AstamahasthanasAstamahasthanas are eight great holy places associated with the life of Buddha: Lumbini, Bodhgaya, Sarnath, Kushinagar, Sravasti, Sankasya and Rajgir.
|Lumbini||Lumbini is currently located in Kapilavastu district of Nepal, it is birth place of Buddha.|
|Bodhgaya||It is located in Bihar on the bank of river Neranjana. It is known for place of enlightenment of Buddha.|
|Sarnath||Sarnath is the deer park where Gautama Buddha delivered his first sermon or "Dhammachakraparivartan" Sutra. At the time of Buddha, it was a part of Kashi Janapada.|
|Kushinagar||Kushinara or Kushinagara is located in Kushinagar district of Uttar Pradesh. It is the site of Buddha's death and mahaparinirvana. At the time of Buddha's death, it was a capital of Malla janapada.|
|Sravasti||Sravasti was located in Uttar Pradesh around area of Balrampur in modern Uttar Pradesh.Most of monastic life of Buddha was spent in Sravasti. In Buddha's times, Shravasti was capital of Kosala Kingdom.|
|Sankasya||It's current location is Farrukhabad district of Uttar Pradesh. It has some faiths of Buddhism that Buddha after is death descended from heaven here.|
|Rajgir||Rajgir was the early capital of Magadh Janapada, which was ruled by Bimbisara during Buddha's time. After the great departure (Mahabhinishkramana), Buddha had first gone to Rajgir. He started begging alms over there and living life of an ascetic. King Bimbisara had offered Buddha his throne which he turned down.|
|Kaushambi||Mahatama Buddha visited the Kaushambi during the reign of King Udayana. It was his 9th resting place.|
Key Buddhist TermsThe terms and concepts associated with Buddhism are complex and can take years to master. Here is a list of most commonly used term in Buddhism:
|Pavarana||A Buddhist holy day celebrated on the full moon (Aashvin) of the lunar month, at the end of the rainy season (Vassa)|
|Upasakas||Male followers of Buddhism|
|Upasikas||Female followers of Buddhism|
|Pavrajya||Going forth from home, the determination to renounce the world and undertake an ascetic path|
|Chaityas||Prayer hall of monks|
|Parajika||It includes four serious offences which result in expulsion from Sangha- sexual intercourse, taking what is not given, killing someone and making false claims of spiritual realisation|
|Upasampada||Ordination ceremony when the novice becomes a full-fledged member of the monastic community|
|Bodhisattva||An enlightened being who compassionately refrains from entering nirvana in order to save others and is worshipped as a deity|
|Bikkhu Sangha||Sangha of monks|
|Bhikkhuni Sangha||Sangha of nuns|
|Sarvastivadin||One of the popular schools of Theravada, which basically relies on the dictum that ?everything whether internal or external exists continuously in all the three phases of time?|
|Sautrantika||Sautrantikas consider only the Sutras as valid (Teachings of Buddha) and not commercial literature|
Devadatta, the cousin of Mahatma Buddha, in his early days, was a follower of Buddha and a good monk as well.
But later he tried to become the leader of Sangha in place of Buddha, but did not succeed.
The entry of women as Bhikshuni into the sangha was allowed by the Buddha at Vaishali on the request of his disciple Anand.
The stupa site which is not connected with any incident of Lord Buddha's life is - Sanchi.
Gautam Buddha is known as the 'Light of Asia' and the 'Enlightened One'.
In India the first idol worship was of "Lord Buddha" and it was started from the fourth Buddha council meet by Mahayana sect of Buddhism.
The standing statue of Gautam Buddha was built during the Kushana period.
Sarnath Buddha image of Bhumisparsha Mudra belongs to the Gupta period.
Nagarjuna was an eminent personality in the court of Kanishka, in first century AD, "Nagarjuna" travelled to china & preached Buddhism.
Nagarjuna founded the philosophy of Madhyamika (Middle Way), sometimes called the Sunnyavada, or Doctrine That All Is Void.
Kumargupta (Gupta Dynasty) founded Nalanda University in the 5th century A.D.