National Family Health Survey 5
The first phase of the fifth round of the National Family Health Survey (NFHS-5) was conducted in 2019-20 and its findings were released in December 2020.
The fourth round of NFHS was conducted five years ago in 2015-16.
The NFHS-5 captured data during 2014-19 and its content is similar to NFHS-4 (2015-16) to allow comparisons over time and also marks a shift from it.
The NFHS provides estimates on key indicators related to population, family planning, child and maternal health, nutrition, adult health, and domestic violence, among others.
In the first phase of NFHS-5, a total of 2,81,429 households, 3,07,422 women, and 43,945 men were surveyed across the 17 states and 5 UTs.
Phase 2 of the survey, which will cover other states such as Uttar Pradesh, Punjab and Madhya Pradesh, was delayed due to the pandemic and its results are expected to be made available in May 2021.
The Ministry of Health has designated the International Institute for Population Sciences (IIPS) Mumbai, as the nodal agency, responsible for providing coordination and technical guidance for the survey.
PopulationTotal Fertility Rate (TFR) is the average number of children born to a woman in her life time, governments set targets for TFR for the purpose of population control.
TFR of 2.1 is considered as the replacement level fertility rate at which population stability(population replaces itself) is achieved.
The National Population Policy, 2000 had sought to achieve replacement level fertility by the year 2010.
All states (except Mizoram) have seen an increase in the use of family planning methods. Goa (42% point) and Bihar (32% point - 3.4 to 3) have seen the highest increase in the use of family planning methods.
Consequently, most states have seen a decrease in the total fertility rate (TFR).
Sikkim recorded the lowest TFR, with one woman bearing 1.1 children on average; Bihar recorded the highest TFR of 3 children per woman.
|Rank||State/UT||Fertility rate 2020|
|2||Andaman & Nicobar
(Lowest in UTs)
|State/UT||Fertility rate 2020|
|Dadra Nagar Haveli
(Top in UTs)
Sex ratio at birth for children born in the last five years is below 950 for seven (of the 17) states. The most notable decline was in Goa (from 966 to 838), and Kerala (from 1,047 to 951).
Only Tripura has a sex ratio at birth above 1,000 (i.e., more females born than males).
Health and NutritionInfant mortality rate (IMR), is the number of infants who die before reaching the age of one year, per 1,000 live births.
Infant Mortality Rate has declined across states, however, malnourishment (Stunting, Wasting) among children is increasing.
Institutional births have increased, out of pocket expenditure on deliveries increased in some states.
Obesity is rising for both men and women across all states.
InfrastructureAccess to electricity, improved source of drinking water and sanitation facility has increased.
The proportion of households using clean fuel for cooking has also increased across nearly all states.
The proportion of women who have a savings or bank account has increased across all the 17 states.
Proportion of women who own a house or land (including joint ownership) has declined in 9 of the 17 states.
In 2019, for the first time, the NFHS-5 sought details on the percentage of women and men who have ever used the Internet.
More women using mobile phones across all states, however, many of them do not have access to internet.
The five states reporting the lowest percentage of women, whoever used the Internet in urban India were Andhra Pradesh (33.9%), Bihar (38.4%), Tripura (36.6%), Telangana (43.9%) and Gujarat (48.9%).
Gender IndicatorsUse of hygienic methods of protection during menstrual period has increased across states.
Gender based violence still remains high, has increased in some states.