The Mughal Empire was founded by Babur (1526-1530), a Central Asian ruler who was descended from the Turco-Mongol conqueror Timur (the founder of the Timurid Empire) on his father's side, and from Genghis Khan on his mother's side.
|Babur||1526-1530||Was a direct descendant of Genghis Khan through Timur and was the founder of the Mughal Empire after his victories at the Battle of Panipat (1526) and the Battle of Khanwa|
II - 1555-1556
|Reign interrupted by Suri Dynasty. Being young and inexperienced led him to be regarded as a less effective ruler than Sher Shah Suri, who defeated him and established the Suri Dynasty.
Restored rule was more unified and effective than the initial reign of 1530-1540. He left the unified empire to his son, Akbar.
|Akbar (was one of the youngest rulers. Became ruler at the age of 13)||1556-1605||He and Bairam Khan defeated Hemu during the Second Battle of Panipat and later won famous victories during the Siege of Chittorgarh and the Siege of Ranthambore. One of his most famous construction marvels was the Lahore Fort. He abolished Jizyah tax imposed on Hindus.
To know more about Akbar?s successors, check the linked article.
|Jahangir||1605-1627||Opened relations with the British East India Company.|
|Shah Jahan||1628-1658||Born on 5th January 1592.
Under him, Mughal art and architecture reached their zenith.
He constructed the Taj Mahal, Jama Masjid, Red Fort, Jahangir mausoleum, and Shalimar Gardens in Lahore. Died in the captivity of his son Aurangzeb.
|Aurangzeb||1658-1707||He ascended the throne on 31st July 1658.
He reinterpreted Islamic law and presented the Fatawa-e-Alamgiri.
He captured the diamond mines of the Sultanate of Golconda and spent the major part of his last 27 years in the war with the Maratha rebels and expanded the empire to its greatest extent.
|Bahadur Shah I (also known as Muazzam/Shah Alam I)||1707-1712||After his reign, the empire went into steady decline due to the lack of leadership qualities among his immediate successors. He released Shahuji, Son of Shambuji, who was the elder son of Shivaji.|
|Jahandar Shah||1712-1713||Was an unpopular incompetent titular figurehead.|
|Furrukhsiyar||1713-1719||His reign marked the ascendancy of the manipulative Syed Brothers, execution of the rebel Banda. In 1717 he granted a Firman to the English East India Company granting them duty-free trading rights for Bengal, the Firman was repudiated by the notable Murshid Quli Khan.|
|Rafi Ul-Darjat||1719||The 10th Mughal Emperor. He succeeded Furrukhsiyar, being proclaimed Badshah by the Syed Brothers.|
|Rafi Ud-Daulat||1719||Was Mughal emperor for a brief period in 1719.|
|Muhammad Ibrahim (Claimant to the throne)||1720||Brother of Rafi Ul-Darjat
Attempted to seize the throne at the behest of the Syed Brothers in order to depose emperor Muhammad Shah
|Muhammad Shah (also called Rangeela)||1719-1720
|Got rid of the Syed Brothers. Countered the emergence of the renegade Marathas and lost large tracts of the Deccan and Malwa in the process. Suffered the invasion of Nadir-Shah of Persia in 1739.|
|Ahmad Shah Bahadur||1748-1754||Son of Muhammad Shah. His Minister Safdarjung was responsible for the Mughal Civil War. He was defeated at Sikandarabad by the Maratha Confederacy.|
|Alamgir II||1754-1759||He was murdered by a conspiracy of Imad-Ul-Mulk and his Maratha associate Sadashivrao Bhau|
|Shah Jahan III||1759-1760||He was overthrown after the Third Battle of Panipat by Prince Mirza Jawan Bakht.|
|Shah Alam II||1760-1806||He is known to have fought against the British East India Company during the Battle of Buxar and reformed the Mughal Army under the command of Mirza Najaf Khan and is thus known as one of the last effective Mughal Emperors.|
|Akbar Shah II||1806-1837||He designated Mir Fateh Ali Khan Talpur as the new Nawab of Sindh. Although he was under British protection his imperial name was removed from the official coinage after a brief dispute with the British East India Company.|
|1837-1857||He was the last Mughal Emperor. He was deposed by the British and exiled to Burma following the Indian Rebellion of 1857.|