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Common diseases and their Causative Agents

news-details Image Source Mar 07, 2021 16:44 IST · 1 min read

A disease is a particular abnormal condition that negatively affects the structure or function of all or part of an organism, and that is not due to any immediate external injury.

Communicable disease spread from person to another, they are "catching" disease and can be spread through the air, water, etc. Non-communicable does not spread from one person to another through any mode.

Acute is a disease with a rapid onset and/or a short course. Chronic is a human health condition or disease that is persistent or otherwise long-lasting in its effects

Vector-borne diseases are human illnesses caused by parasites, viruses and bacteria that are transmitted by vectors. Vectors are living organisms that can transmit infectious diseases between humans or from animals to humans.

Here is a list of important diseases their symptoms, carrier, causative agents and efforts to eradicate it.

Diseases Causative agent Overview Symptoms Transmission Treatment
AIDS (Acquired immune deficiency syndrome) HIV (Human immunodeficiency virus) HIV causes AIDS and interferes with the body's ability to fight infections. HIV infection -Flu-like symptoms, AIDS - Weight loss, fever or night sweats, fatigue and recurrent infections.
contact with infected blood, semen or vaginal fluids. No cure exists for AIDS, but strict adherence to antiretroviral regimens (ARVs) can dramatically slow the disease's progress as well as prevent secondary infections and complications.
Chickenpox Varicella zoster virus (VZV) highly contagious. itchy, blister-like rash on the skin. directly touching the blisters, saliva or mucus of an infected person, through the air by coughing and sneezing. prevented by a vaccine, treatment usually involves relieving symptoms and sometimes antiviral medication.
Cholera Vibrio Cholerae (Bacterium) Cholera is fatal if not treated right away. diarrhoea and Dehydration, rarely, shock and seizures may occur. drinking water or eating food contaminated with cholera bacteria. The feces of an infected person contaminates water or food. rehydration, IV fluids and antibiotics.
Dengue fever Dengue viruses (DEN-1, DEN-2, DEN-3 and DEN-4) - Flaviviruses mosquito-borne tropical disease high fever, headache, rash and muscle and joint pain, bleeding and shock. Dengue is spread by several species of female mosquitoes of the Aedes genus, principally Aedes aegypti. fluids and pain relievers and hospital care.
Ebola Ebolavirus (EBOV) fever, headache, muscle pain and chills, severe bleeding, organ failure and can lead to death. mumans may spread the virus to other humans through contact with bodily fluids such as blood. treatment is supportive hospital care.
Hepatitis A Hepatitis A Virus highly contagious liver infection fatigue, nausea, abdominal pain, loss of appetite and low-grade fever. contaminated food or water or contact with someone who is infected. preventable by vaccine - the condition clears up on its own in one or two months. Rest and adequate hydration can help.
Hepatitis B Hepatitis B Virus highly contagious liver infection yellowing of the eyes, abdominal pain and dark urine exposure to infected bodily fluids the condition often clears up on its own. Chronic cases require medication and possibly a liver transplant.
Hepatitis C Hepatitis C Virus virus attacks the liver and leads to inflammation fatigue, nausea, loss of appetite and yellowing of the eyes and skin contact with contaminated blood antiviral medication
Hepatitis D Hepatitis D Virus Hepatitis D only occurs amongst people who are infected with the Hepatitis B virus. abdominal pain, nausea and fatigue contact with infectious blood self care and fluids
Hepatitis E Hepatitis E Virus liver disease jaundice, lack of appetite and nausea transmitted through drinking water contaminated with faecal matter self care and fluids, supportive care, rehydration and rest
Leprosy Mycobacterium leprae and Mycobacterium lepromatosis skin lesions and nerve damage light-coloured or red skin patches with reduced sensation, numbness and weakness in hands and feet contact with the mucosal secretions of a person with the infection 6-12 months of multi-drug therapy
Malaria Plasmodium genus (parasite) mosquito-borne chills, fever and sweating transmitted by the bite of infected mosquitoes antimalarial drugs
Measles Measles virus highly contagious cough, runny nose, inflamed eyes, sore throat, fever and a red, blotchy skin rash spreads through the air by respiratory droplets produced from coughing or sneezing no treatment, but vitamin A may help
Meningitis Viral, bacterial or fungal inflammation of brain and spinal cord membranes headache, fever and stiff neck droplets of respiratory or throat secretions from carriers antibiotic treatment
COVID-19 Novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)
Plague Yersinia pestis (bacterium) transmitted by fleas. swollen lymph nodes, which can be as large as chicken eggs, in the groin, armpit or neck contact with infected flea urgent hospital treatment with strong antibiotics
Pneumonia Variety of organisms inflames air sacs in one or both lungs, which may fill with fluid cough with phlegm or pus, fever, chills and difficulty breathing number of ways including air-borne droplets from a cough or sneeze antibiotics
Rabies Rabies virus deadly virus fever, headache, excess salivation, muscle spasms, paralysis and mental confusion saliva of infected animals, animal bite no specific treatment
Rubella (german measles) Rubella virus contagious, distinctive red rash mild fever and headache saliva or mucus of an infected person or through the air from coughing or sneezing no treatment
Sepsis Multiple it occurs when chemicals released in the bloodstream to fight an infection trigger inflammation throughout the body. fever, difficulty breathing, low blood pressure, fast heart rate and mental confusion isn't contagious antibiotics and intravenous fluids
Smallpox Variola major or Variola minor virus contagious, disfiguring and often deadly flu-like symptoms, rash appears on the face, hands and forearms contact with infected persons no treatment, a vaccine can prevent it
Yellow fever Yellow fever virus serious, potentially deadly fever, headache, nausea and vomiting, fatal heart, liver and kidney conditions the bite of infected Aedes or Haemagogus species mosquitoes No specific treatment
Tetanus Clostridium tetani (bacterium) painful muscle spasms and can lead to death painful muscle contractions, particularly in the jaw and neck bacteria are usually found in soil, dust, and manure and enter the body through breaks in the skin no cure
Chikungunya Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) transmitted by mosquitoes muscle pain, headache, fatigue and rash two types of mosquitos - Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti treatment is aimed at relieving symptoms
Kala Azar Leishmania Donovani (Protozoa) spread by sandfly bites fever, weight loss and swelling of the spleen or liver sandfly bites medication exists to kill the parasites

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