A disease is a particular abnormal condition that negatively affects the structure or function of all or part of an organism, and that is not due to any immediate external injury.
Communicable disease spread from person to another, they are "catching" disease and can be spread through the air, water, etc. Non-communicable does not spread from one person to another through any mode.
Acute is a disease with a rapid onset and/or a short course. Chronic is a human health condition or disease that is persistent or otherwise long-lasting in its effects
Vector-borne diseases are human illnesses caused by parasites, viruses and bacteria that are transmitted by vectors. Vectors are living organisms that can transmit infectious diseases between humans or from animals to humans.
Here is a list of important diseases their symptoms, carrier, causative agents and efforts to eradicate it.
|AIDS (Acquired immune deficiency syndrome)||HIV (Human immunodeficiency virus)||HIV causes AIDS and interferes with the body's ability to fight infections.||HIV infection -Flu-like symptoms, AIDS - Weight loss, fever or night sweats, fatigue and recurrent infections.
||contact with infected blood, semen or vaginal fluids.||No cure exists for AIDS, but strict adherence to antiretroviral regimens (ARVs) can dramatically slow the disease's progress as well as prevent secondary infections and complications.|
|Chickenpox||Varicella zoster virus (VZV)||highly contagious.||itchy, blister-like rash on the skin.||directly touching the blisters, saliva or mucus of an infected person, through the air by coughing and sneezing.||prevented by a vaccine, treatment usually involves relieving symptoms and sometimes antiviral medication.|
|Cholera||Vibrio Cholerae (Bacterium)||Cholera is fatal if not treated right away.||diarrhoea and Dehydration, rarely, shock and seizures may occur.||drinking water or eating food contaminated with cholera bacteria. The feces of an infected person contaminates water or food.||rehydration, IV fluids and antibiotics.|
|Dengue fever||Dengue viruses (DEN-1, DEN-2, DEN-3 and DEN-4) - Flaviviruses||mosquito-borne tropical disease||high fever, headache, rash and muscle and joint pain, bleeding and shock.||Dengue is spread by several species of female mosquitoes of the Aedes genus, principally Aedes aegypti.||fluids and pain relievers and hospital care.|
|Ebola||Ebolavirus (EBOV)||fever, headache, muscle pain and chills, severe bleeding, organ failure and can lead to death.||mumans may spread the virus to other humans through contact with bodily fluids such as blood.||treatment is supportive hospital care.|
|Hepatitis A||Hepatitis A Virus||highly contagious liver infection||fatigue, nausea, abdominal pain, loss of appetite and low-grade fever.||contaminated food or water or contact with someone who is infected.||preventable by vaccine - the condition clears up on its own in one or two months. Rest and adequate hydration can help.|
|Hepatitis B||Hepatitis B Virus||highly contagious liver infection||yellowing of the eyes, abdominal pain and dark urine||exposure to infected bodily fluids||the condition often clears up on its own. Chronic cases require medication and possibly a liver transplant.|
|Hepatitis C||Hepatitis C Virus||virus attacks the liver and leads to inflammation||fatigue, nausea, loss of appetite and yellowing of the eyes and skin||contact with contaminated blood||antiviral medication|
|Hepatitis D||Hepatitis D Virus||Hepatitis D only occurs amongst people who are infected with the Hepatitis B virus.||abdominal pain, nausea and fatigue||contact with infectious blood||self care and fluids|
|Hepatitis E||Hepatitis E Virus||liver disease||jaundice, lack of appetite and nausea||transmitted through drinking water contaminated with faecal matter||self care and fluids, supportive care, rehydration and rest
|Leprosy||Mycobacterium leprae and Mycobacterium lepromatosis||skin lesions and nerve damage||light-coloured or red skin patches with reduced sensation, numbness and weakness in hands and feet||contact with the mucosal secretions of a person with the infection||6-12 months of multi-drug therapy|
|Malaria||Plasmodium genus (parasite)||mosquito-borne||chills, fever and sweating||transmitted by the bite of infected mosquitoes||antimalarial drugs|
|Measles||Measles virus||highly contagious||cough, runny nose, inflamed eyes, sore throat, fever and a red, blotchy skin rash||spreads through the air by respiratory droplets produced from coughing or sneezing||no treatment, but vitamin A may help|
|Meningitis||Viral, bacterial or fungal||inflammation of brain and spinal cord membranes||headache, fever and stiff neck||droplets of respiratory or throat secretions from carriers||antibiotic treatment|
|COVID-19||Novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)|
|Plague||Yersinia pestis (bacterium)||transmitted by fleas.||swollen lymph nodes, which can be as large as chicken eggs, in the groin, armpit or neck||contact with infected flea||urgent hospital treatment with strong antibiotics|
|Pneumonia||Variety of organisms||inflames air sacs in one or both lungs, which may fill with fluid||cough with phlegm or pus, fever, chills and difficulty breathing||number of ways including air-borne droplets from a cough or sneeze||antibiotics|
|Rabies||Rabies virus||deadly virus||fever, headache, excess salivation, muscle spasms, paralysis and mental confusion||saliva of infected animals, animal bite||no specific treatment|
|Rubella (german measles)||Rubella virus||contagious, distinctive red rash||mild fever and headache||saliva or mucus of an infected person or through the air from coughing or sneezing||no treatment|
|Sepsis||Multiple||it occurs when chemicals released in the bloodstream to fight an infection trigger inflammation throughout the body.||fever, difficulty breathing, low blood pressure, fast heart rate and mental confusion||isn't contagious||antibiotics and intravenous fluids|
|Smallpox||Variola major or Variola minor virus||contagious, disfiguring and often deadly||flu-like symptoms, rash appears on the face, hands and forearms||contact with infected persons||no treatment, a vaccine can prevent it|
|Yellow fever||Yellow fever virus||serious, potentially deadly||fever, headache, nausea and vomiting, fatal heart, liver and kidney conditions||the bite of infected Aedes or Haemagogus species mosquitoes||No specific treatment|
|Tetanus||Clostridium tetani (bacterium)||painful muscle spasms and can lead to death||painful muscle contractions, particularly in the jaw and neck||bacteria are usually found in soil, dust, and manure and enter the body through breaks in the skin||no cure|
|Chikungunya||Chikungunya virus (CHIKV)||transmitted by mosquitoes||muscle pain, headache, fatigue and rash||two types of mosquitos - Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti||treatment is aimed at relieving symptoms|
|Kala Azar||Leishmania Donovani (Protozoa)||spread by sandfly bites||fever, weight loss and swelling of the spleen or liver||sandfly bites||medication exists to kill the parasites|
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