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Important Scientific Salt, Elements, Compounds and Processes

news-details Image Source Sep 04, 2021 03:42 IST , Updated: Oct 01, 2021 11:00 IST · 22 min read


Corundum is a crystalline form of aluminium oxide (Al2O3) typically containing traces of iron, titanium, vanadium and chromium.

Extremely hard crystallized alumina, used as an abrasive. Ruby and sapphire are varieties of corundum.

An abrasive is a material, often a mineral, that is used to shape or finish a workpiece through rubbing which leads to part of the workpiece being worn away by friction.


Gypsum is a soft sulfate mineral composed of calcium sulfate dihydrate, with the chemical formula CaSO4·2H2O.

It is widely mined and is used as a fertilizer and as the main constituent in many forms of plaster, blackboard/sidewalk chalk, and drywall.

Kaolin (china clay)

Kaolin (china clay) is a hydrated aluminum silicate (Al2Si2O5(OH)4.) crystalline mineral (kaolinite) formed over many millions of years by the hydrothermal decomposition of granite rocks.

Clay is used in various industries like rubber, paper, ceramic, glass, paint , plastic and others. Each industry requires different grades of clay in terms of size and content of different minerals.

Silver bromide (AgBr)

Silver bromide (AgBr) is a soft, pale-yellow, water-insoluble salt well known (along with other silver halides) for its unusual sensitivity to light.

This property has allowed silver halides to become the basis of modern photographic materials.

AgBr is widely used in photographic films and is believed by some to have been used for making the Shroud of Turin.

The salt can be found naturally as the mineral bromargyrite.

Silver iodide (AgI)

Silver iodide is an inorganic bright yellow solid, but samples almost always contain impurities of metallic silver that give a gray coloration.

The silver contamination arises because AgI is highly photosensitive. This property is exploited in silver-based photography.

Silver iodide is also used as an antiseptic and in cloud seeding.

Sodium chlorate (NaClO3)

Sodium chlorate is an inorganic, white crystalline powder that is readily soluble in water.

It decomposes above 300 °C to release oxygen and leaves sodium chloride. Several hundred million tons are produced annually, mainly for applications in bleaching pulp to produce high brightness paper.

Sodium chlorate is used as a non-selective herbicide.

Potassium permanganate (KMnO4)

Potassium permanganate is an inorganic, purplish-black crystalline salt, that dissolves in water to give intensely pink or purple solutions.

Potassium permanganate is widely used in chemical industry and laboratories as a strong oxidizing agent, and also as a medication for dermatitis, for cleaning wounds, general disinfection and skin conditions, including fungal infections.

Bleaching Powder (Calcium hypochlorite - Ca(OCl)2)

Bleach is the generic name for any chemical product that is used industrially and domestically to remove color from a fabric or fiber or to clean or to remove stains in a process called bleaching.

It often refers, specifically, to a dilute solution of sodium hypochlorite, also called "liquid bleach".

Calcium hypochlorite is the main active ingredient of commercial products called bleaching powder, chlorine powder, or chlorinated lime, used for water treatment and as a bleaching agent.

Bleaching Powder is used for bleaching dirty clothes in the laundry and as a disinfectant which is used for disinfecting water to make potable water.


Kevlar is a heat-resistant and strong synthetic fiber, related to other aramids such as Nomex and Technora.

Developed by Stephanie Kwolek at DuPont in 1965, the high-strength material was first used commercially in the early 1970s as a replacement for steel in racing tires.


Paclitaxel, sold under the brand name Taxol among others, is a chemotherapy medication used to treat a number of types of cancer.

It is given by injection into a vein.

Zinc phosphide

Zinc phosphide (Zn3P2) is an inorganic chemical compound. It is a grey solid, although commercial samples are often dark or even black.

It is used as a rodenticide (rat poison).


Nitrocellulose (C6H7O2 (ONO2)3 ) is a highly flammable compound formed by nitrating cellulose through exposure to a mixture of nitric acid and sulfuric acid.

One of its first major uses was as guncotton, a replacement for gunpowder as propellant in firearms.


An antacid is a substance which neutralizes stomach acidity and is used to relieve heartburn, indigestion or an upset stomach.

Currently marketed antacids contain salts of aluminum, calcium, magnesium, or sodium.

Common liquid preparations include Milk of magnesia or Magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH)2) and magnesium/aluminum combinations.


Denaturation is the process of modifying the molecular structure of a protein.

Denaturation involves the breaking of many of the weak linkages, or bonds (e.g., hydrogen bonds), within a protein molecule that are responsible for the highly ordered structure of the protein in its natural (native) state.

Denaturation can be brought about in various ways: e.g., by heating, by treatment with alkali, acid, urea, or detergents, and by vigorous shaking.


Pasteurization or pasteurisation is a process in which packaged and non-packaged foods (such as milk and fruit juice) are treated with mild heat, usually to less than 100 °C, to eliminate pathogens and extend shelf life.

The process is intended to destroy or deactivate organisms and enzymes that contribute to spoilage or risk of disease.


Aspartame is an artificial non-saccharide sweetener 200 times sweeter than sucrose, and is commonly used as a sugar substitute in foods and beverages.

It is a methyl ester of the aspartic acid/phenylalanine dipeptide with the trade names NutraSweet, Equal, and Canderel.


Oxytocin is a hormone and a neurotransmitter that is involved in childbirth and breast-feeding. It is also associated with empathy, trust, sexual activity, and relationship-building.

It is sometimes referred to as the love hormone, because levels of oxytocin increase during hugging and orgasm.


Neoprene (polychloroprene) is a family of synthetic rubbers that are produced by polymerization of chloroprene. Neoprene exhibits good chemical stability and maintains flexibility over a wide temperature range.

Polymerization is a process through which a large number of monomer molecules react together to form a polymer.


Rayon is a synthetic fiber (resha), made from natural sources of regenerated cellulose, such as wood and related agricultural products. It has the same molecular structure as cellulose.


Cellulose is a molecule, consisting of hundreds - and sometimes even thousands - of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen atoms.

Cellulose is the main substance in the walls of plant cells, helping plants to remain stiff and upright. Humans cannot digest cellulose, but it is important in the diet as fibre.


Usually, when we hear about alum it is in reference to potassium alum, which is the hydrated form of potassium aluminum sulfate and has the chemical formula KAl(SO4)2·12H2O.

However, any of the compounds with the empirical formula AB(SO4)2·12H2O are considered to be an alum.

Sometimes alum is seen in its crystalline form, although it is most often sold as a powder.

Potassium alum is a fine white powder that you can find sold with kitchen spices or pickling ingredients. It is also sold as a large crystal as a "deodorant rock" for underarm use.

Usage: purification of drinking water, stop bleeding from minor cuts, in vaccines, in deodorant, pickling agent, flame retardant, baking powder, modeling clay, hair removal waxes, skin whitener and toothpaste.

Chrome alum

Chrome alum or Chromium(III) potassium sulfate is the potassium double sulfate of chromium. Its chemical formula is KCr(SO4)2 and it is used in leather tanning and as a hardener.

Caustic potash (Potassium hydroxide)

Potassium hydroxide is an inorganic compound with the formula KOH, and is commonly called caustic potash.

Along with sodium hydroxide (NaOH), KOH is a prototypical strong base. It has many industrial and niche applications, most of which exploit its caustic nature and its reactivity toward acids.

Usage: cleaning agent and sanitizer, making soap, paint and varnish removers, as an electrolyte in alkaline batteries and lithography etc.

Limewater (milk of lime)

Limewater is the common name for a dilute aqueous solution of Calcium hydroxide, Ca(OH)2.

Usage: softening to reduce water hardness, neutralizing agent in municipal waste water treatment

The hardness of water is determined primarily by the amount of calcium and magnesium it contains. Higher levels of these and other minerals make water hard.

Instead of having higher levels of calcium and magnesium, soft water tends to have higher concentrations of sodium, or salt.

Plaster of Paris

Made up of gypsum (calcium sulfate dihydrate), the Plaster of Paris is a white colour powder. It is a popularly used substance for sculpting, casting, and gauze bandages.

Chemically, it is calcium sulphate hemihydrates that are obtained from heating gypsum.


Chalk is a soft, white, porous, sedimentary carbonate rock.

It is a form of limestone (CaCo3) composed of the mineral calcite and originally formed deep under the sea by the compression of microscopic plankton that had settled to the sea floor.

The purest varieties contain up to 99 percent calcium carbonate in the form of the mineral calcite.

Usage: In classroom chalk, making lime and portland cement, as a fertilizer etc.

Qquicklime or Burnt lime (Calcium oxide)

The broadly used term "lime" connotes calcium-containing inorganic materials, in which carbonates, oxides and hydroxides of calcium, silicon, magnesium, aluminium, and iron predominate.

Calcium oxide (CaO), generally recognized as burnt lime or quicklime, is a widely used material for desulfurization.

Usage: metal smelting (metal from its ore), paper bleaching, sulphur neutralization in sugar.

Quicklime is created by heating limestone as shown in the following equation:

CaCO3 + HEAT → CaO + CO2


Limestone is a common type of carbonate sedimentary rock.

It is composed mostly of the minerals calcite and aragonite, which are different crystal forms of calcium carbonate (CaCO3).

Limestone forms when these minerals precipitate out of water containing dissolved calcium.

Usage: building material, portland cement, roads, toothpaste, paints, production of lime, as a soil conditioner etc.


Marble is a metamorphic rock composed of re-crystallized carbonate minerals, most commonly calcite or dolomite.

Marble is commonly used for sculpture and as a building material.


Calcium hydride (CaH2) is called hydrolith, it reacts with water to form calcium hydroxide.

Usage: drying agent, reducing agent, source for Hydrogen


The ammonium cation is a positively charged polyatomic ion with the chemical formula NH+4.

It is formed by the protonation of ammonia (NH3).

Ammonium is also a general name for positively charged or protonated substituted amines and quaternary ammonium cations (NR+4), where one or more hydrogen atoms are replaced by organic groups (indicated by R).


An amalgam is an alloy of mercury with another metal.

It may be a liquid, a soft paste or a solid, depending upon the proportion of mercury.

Almost all metals can form amalgams with mercury, the notable exceptions being iron, platinum, tungsten, and tantalum.

Dental amalgam is a dental filling material used to fill cavities caused by tooth decay. Dental amalgam is a mixture of metals, consisting of liquid (elemental) mercury and a powdered alloy composed of silver, tin, and copper.

An alloy is an admixture of metals, or a metal combined with one or more other elements.

Tin amalgam was used in the middle of the 19th century as a reflective mirror coating.

Gold-mercury amalgam is used in the extraction of gold from ore.

Nitrous oxide (Laughing gas)

Nitrous oxide (N2O), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain reducing effects.

It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines.

Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide also substantially contributes to global warming.


Litharge is one of the natural mineral forms of lead oxide, PbO.

PbO may be prepared by heating lead metal in air at approximately 600°C (lead melts at only 300°C).

Usage: An accelerator, toughener, and control ingredient in rubber production, catalyst in oil refining etc.


Vermilion is both a brilliant red or scarlet pigment, originally made from the powdered mineral cinnabar, and the corresponding color.

It is commonly used in Hindu culture, primarily by women, and was widely used in the art and decoration of Ancient Rome.

It was used to paint temples and the carriages of the emperor, and as the printing paste for personal seals.

White lead

White lead is the basic lead carbonate 2PbCO3·Pb(OH)2.

Usage: making putty, pottery and use by artists etc.

Acid salts

Acid salts are a class of salts that produce an acidic solution after being dissolved in a solvent. Its formation as a substance has a greater electrical conductivity than that of the pure solvent.

Usage: in foods as leavening agents, baking powder, ceramics, glasses, fluxes, as fire retardants.

Muriatic acid (Hydrochloric acid)

Hydrochloric acid, also known as muriatic acid, is an aqueous solution of hydrogen chloride (HCl).

It is classified as a strong acid.

It is a component of the gastric acid in the digestive systems of most animal species, including humans.

Hydrochloric acid is usually prepared industrially by dissolving hydrogen chloride in water.

Usage: refining metal, food additive, leather processing, cleaning, purification of table salt, digest food etc.

Oil of Vitriol (Sulfuric acid)

Sulfuric acid also known as oil of vitriol, is a mineral acid composed of the elements sulfur, oxygen and hydrogen, with the molecular formula H2SO4.

It is hygroscopic and readily absorbs water vapor from the air.

Sulfuric acid can be obtained by dissolving sulfur trioxide in water.

Usage: fertilizer manufacture, mineral processing, oil refining, wastewater processing, and chemical synthesis, as an electrolyte, dehydrating a compound, cleaning agents, explosives, detergents, dyes etc.

Aqua regia

Aqua regia is a mixture of nitric acid (HNO3) and hydrochloric acid (HCl), optimally in a molar ratio of 1:3.

Aqua regia is a yellow-orange (sometimes red) fuming liquid, so named by alchemists because it can dissolve the noble metals gold and platinum, though not all metals.

Usage: dissolve noble metals such as gold and platinum, manufacture of chloroauric acid, used as an electrolyte in the Wohlwill process to refine gold of the highest quality.

Water gas

Water gas is a combustion fuel containing carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen gas (H2).

Water gas is made by passing steam over heated hydrocarbons.

The water-gas shift reaction can be used to reduce carbon dioxide levels and enrich hydrogen content, making water gas. The water-gas shift reaction is:

CO + H2O → CO2 + H2

Usage: remove carbon dioxide, make fuel gas, used in Fischer-Tropsch process, to obtain pure hydrogen to synthesize ammonia,


Oleum, or fuming sulfuric acid, is a term referring to solutions of various compositions of sulfur trioxide in sulfuric acid, or sometimes more specifically to disulfuric acid (pyrosulfuric acid).

Oleums can be described by the formula H2SO4·xSO3 where x is now defined as the molar free sulfur trioxide content.

Oleum is produced in the contact process, where sulfur is oxidized to sulfur trioxide which is subsequently dissolved in concentrated sulfuric acid. Sulfuric acid itself is regenerated by dilution of part of the oleum.

Usage: sulfonation processes (chemically adding sulfate), nylon manufacturing, production of dyes, nitrating reactions, hydrofluoric acid (HF) production etc.

Green Kasis (Ferrous Sulphate)

Green Kasis is Ferrous Sulphate (FeSO4.7H2O), it is also known as copperas and Green vitriol.

Usage: treat iron deficiency, cure for anemia, liver disorders and spleen enlargement.

Dry Ice

Dry ice is the solid form of carbon dioxide, it is used primarily as a cooling agent, but is also used in fog machines at theatres for dramatic effects.

It is useful for preserving frozen foods where mechanical cooling is unavailable.

Usage: airline catering, cold grinding, blast cleaning, freeze branding, freeze drying etc.

Magnesium hydroxide

Magnesium hydroxide is the inorganic compound with the chemical formula Mg(OH)2.

Magnesium hydroxide is a common component of antacids, such as milk of magnesia.

Milk of Magnesia reduces stomach acid, and increases water in the intestines which may induce bowel movements.

Milk of Magnesia is used as a laxative to relieve occasional constipation.

Milk of Magnesia is also used as an antacid to relieve indigestion, sour stomach, and heartburn.

Horn Silver (Chlorargyrite)

Chlorargyrite is the mineral form of silver chloride (AgCl).

These are secondary minerals that commonly occur as alteration products of native silver, silver sulfides, and sulfosalts in silver deposits that have been oxidized by weathering.

Lunar Castic (Silver nitrate)

Silver nitrate is an natural inorganic compound with chemical formula AgNO3, it is used as an antiinfective agent.

It is far less sensitive to light than the halides.

It was once called lunar caustic because silver was called luna by the ancient alchemists, who associated silver with the moon.

Usage: stop bleeding from a minor skin wound, antiinfective agent etc.

Calomel (mercury chloride)

Calomel is a mercury chloride mineral with formula Hg2Cl2.

Usage: treat malaria and yellow fever

Corrosive sublimate

Mercury(II) chloride or mercuric chloride is the chemical compound of mercury and chlorine with the formula HgCl2.

Once used as a treatment for syphilis, it is no longer used for medicinal purposes because of mercury toxicity and the availability of superior treatments.

Now it is mainly used as a catalyst in production of PVC (Polyvinyl chloride).

Heavy water

Heavy water (deuterium oxide, 2H2O, D2O) is a form of water that contains only deuterium (2H or D, also known as heavy hydrogen) rather than the common hydrogen-1 isotope (1H or H, also called protium) that makes up most of the hydrogen in normal water.

The presence of the heavier hydrogen isotope gives the water different nuclear properties, and the increase of mass gives it slightly different physical and chemical properties when compared to normal water.

The density of D2O is approximately 11 per cent greater than that of H2O, an ice cube made of deuterium oxide will sink in normal water.

Heavy water is prepared by the prolonged electrolysis of water containing alkali.

Electrolyte: Water containing NaOH.
Cathode: Steel vessel.
Anode: Nickel sheet with holes.

Usage: moderator in the nuclear reactor, preparation of Deuterium, photosynthesis, in NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) spectroscopy, IR (infrared) spectroscopy etc.

Deuterium (Heavy Hydrogen)

Deuterium (or hydrogen-2, symbol 2H or D, also known as heavy hydrogen) is one of two stable isotopes of hydrogen (the other being protium, or hydrogen-1).

Deuterium is used in heavy water moderated fission reactors, usually as liquid D2O, to slow neutrons without the high neutron absorption of ordinary hydrogen.


Silica (SiO2) is the name given to a group of minerals composed of silicon and oxygen, the two most abundant elements in the earth's crust.

Usage: anti-caking agent, control viscosity, anti-foaming agent, dough modifier, glass, foundries, construction, ceramics, and the chemical industry, functional filler etc.


Phenol (carbolic acid) is an aromatic organic compound with the molecular formula C6H5OH.

The molecule consists of a phenyl group (-C6H5) bonded to a hydroxy group (-OH).

Usage: synthesize plastics and related materials and production of polycarbonates, epoxies, Bakelite, nylon, detergents, herbicides such as phenoxy herbicides, and numerous pharmaceutical drugs.

Wood Spirit (Methanol)

Methanol, also known as methyl alcohol or methyl hydrate, amongst other names, is a chemical and the simplest alcohol, with the formula CH3OH.

A polar solvent, methanol acquired the name wood alcohol because it was once produced chiefly by the destructive distillation of wood.

Today, methanol is mainly produced industrially by hydrogenation of carbon monoxide.

Used as a precursor to other commodity chemicals, including formaldehyde, acetic acid, methyl tert-butyl ether, methyl benzoate, anisole, peroxyacids, as well as a host of more specialised chemicals.

Trinitrotoluene (TNT)

Trinitrotoluene (TNT, or more specifically 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene, is a chemical compound with the formula C6H2(NO2)3CH3.

This yellow solid is occasionally used as a reagent in chemical synthesis, but it is best known as an explosive material with convenient handling properties.

The explosive yield of TNT is considered to be the standard comparative convention of bombs and asteroid impacts.

Trinitrotoluene (TNT) is used as a high explosive for military and industrial applications. It is also an intermediate in the production of dyes and photographic chemicals.

Chloroform (trichloromethane)

Chloroform, or trichloromethane, is an organic compound with formula CHCl3.

It is a colorless, strong-smelling, dense liquid that is produced on a large scale as a precursor to Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE).

It is also a precursor to various refrigerants.

It is a powerful anesthetic, euphoriant, anxiolytic and sedative when inhaled or ingested.

In industry production, chloroform is produced by heating a mixture of chlorine and either chloromethane (CH3Cl) or methane (CH4).

Usage: as a anaesthetic agent, as a solvent, building, paper industries, pesticide, film production, as a dry cleaning spot remover etc.

Iodoform (triiodomethane)

Iodoform or triiodomethane is the organic iodine compound with the formula CHI3.

It has a penetrating and distinctive odor (the smell is sometimes referred to as that of hospitals where it is used as a disinfectant).

Usage: an antiseptic for dressing wounds


Pyrene is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) consisting of four fused benzene rings, resulting in a flat aromatic system.

The chemical formula is C16H10.

Pyrene forms during incomplete combustion of organic compounds.

Like most PAHs, pyrene is used to make dyes, plastics and pesticides.

It has also been used to make another PAH called benzo(a)pyrene.

Baking Soda

Sodium bicarbonate, commonly known as baking soda or bicarbonate of soda, is a chemical compound with the formula NaHCO3.

It is a salt composed of a sodium cation (Na+) and a bicarbonate anion (HCO3-).

It has a slightly salty, alkaline taste resembling that of washing soda (sodium carbonate).

The natural mineral form is nahcolite.

Usage: leavening agent (make the dough to rise), relieve heartburn, as an antacid to remove acidity of the stomach etc.

Caustic Soda

Sodium hydroxide, also known as lye and caustic soda is an inorganic compound with the formula NaOH.

Sodium hydroxide is a highly caustic base and alkali that decomposes (decay) proteins at ordinary ambient temperatures and may cause severe chemical burns.

It readily absorbs moisture and carbon dioxide from the air.

Usage: in the manufacture of pulp and paper, cleaning, textiles, drinking water, soaps and detergents, petroleum products, and as a drain cleaner etc.

Washing Soda

Sodium carbonate, Na2CO3·10H2O, also known as washing soda, soda ash and soda crystals is the inorganic compound with the formula Na2CO3 and its various hydrates.

It is produced in large quantities from sodium chloride and limestone by the Solvay process.

Usage: making glass, detergents, and cleansers.

Nitre (saltpetre)

Niter, or nitre is the mineral form of potassium nitrate, KNO3, also known as saltpeter or saltpetre.

Usage: main ingredient of gunpowder, fertilizers, tree stump removal, rocket propellants and fireworks etc.

Chile saltpeter

Sodium nitrate is the chemical compound with the formula NaNO3.

This alkali metal nitrate salt is also known as Chile saltpeter or soda niter to distinguish it from ordinary saltpeter, potassium nitrate.

Usage: fertilizer, create a hybrid aqua regia


Silicon carbide (SiC), also known as carborundum is a semiconductor containing silicon and carbon.

Carborundum has a crystal structure like that of diamond and is almost as hard.

It occurs in nature as the extremely rare mineral moissanite.

Usage: light-emitting diodes (LEDs), detectors in early radios, in semiconductors, abrasive for cutting, grinding, and polishing, as an antislip additive, and as a refractory, bulletproof vests, ceramic plates etc.

Suhaga (Borax)

Borax (Na2B4O7·10H2O), also known as sodium borate, sodium tetraborate, or disodium tetraborate, is an important boron compound, a mineral, and a salt of boric acid.

It's widely used as a household cleaner and a booster for laundry detergent.

It's a combination of boron, sodium, and oxygen.

Usage: cleaning, toothpaste, mouthwash, lotions, skin creams, paint, herbicides etc.

Glauber's Salt

Glauber's salt is the decahydrate form of sodium sulfate, it is also known as mirabilite.

The chemical formula of Glauber's salt can be written as Na2SO4.10H2O.

Usage: manufacture of detergents, kraft process of paper pulping

Hypo (Sodium thiosulfate)

Sodium thiosulfate (sodium thiosulphate) is an inorganic compound with the formula Na2S2O3.xH2O.

Usage: gold mining, water treatment, photographic film and prints, treatment of certain rare medical conditions like cyanide poisoning and pityriasis.

Chlorine (Cl)

Chlorine (Cl) is the second lightest member of the halogen elements of the periodic table. Chlorine is a toxic, corrosive, greenish yellow gas that is irritating to the eyes and to the respiratory system.

Usage: disinfect water, bleaching agent, in production of paper and cloth, cleaning products etc.


Polyethylene or polythene is the most common plastic in use today.

Many kinds of polyethylene are known, with most having the chemical formula (C2H4)n.

PE is usually a mixture of similar polymers of ethylene, with various values of n.

Polyethylene is usually thermoplastic, but it can be modified to become thermosetting instead, for example, in cross-linked polyethylene.

Teflon (Polytetrafluoroethylene)

Teflon is a brand name for a synthetic chemical called polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE).

Teflon is used to coat a variety of products because it's waterproof, cuts down on friction, and creates a nonstick surface.

Usage: making waterproof fabric, non-stick cookware, anti-friction device, coating medical appliances etc.


Polyoxybenzylmethylenglycolanhydride, better known as Bakelite was the first plastic made from synthetic components.

It is a thermosetting phenol formaldehyde resin, formed from a condensation reaction of phenol with formaldehyde.

It has electrical nonconductivity and heat-resistant properties.

Usage: in electrical insulators, radio and telephone casings, kitchenware, jewelry, pipe stems, children's toys, and firearms etc.


Nylon is a generic designation for a family of synthetic polymers composed of polyamides (repeating units linked by amide links).

Nylon is a silk-like thermoplastic, generally made from petroleum, that can be melt-processed into fibers, films, or shapes.

Nylon polymers have found significant commercial applications in fabric and fibers (apparel, flooring and rubber reinforcement), in shapes (molded parts for cars, electrical equipment, etc.), and in films (mostly for food packaging).

Terylene (Polyethylene terephthalate)

Polyethylene terephthalate, commonly abbreviated PET, PETE is the most common thermoplastic polymer resin of the polyester family.

It is used in fibres for clothing, containers for liquids and foods, and thermoforming for manufacturing, and in combination with glass fibre for engineering resins.

It may also be referred to by the brand names Terylene in the UK, Lavsan in Russia and the former Soviet Union, and Dacron in the US.

Usage: garments fabric, plastic bottles, sheets, ropes, nets, sails, dresses, toestry, raincoat, fleece jackets etc.

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