Swachh Bharat Mission (SBM) was launched by PM Modi on 2nd October 2014 to eliminate open defecation and improve solid waste management.
The mission was implemented as nation-wide campaign to eliminate open defecation in rural areas during the period 2014 to 2019 through mass scale behavior change, construction of household-owned and community-owned toilets and establishing mechanisms for monitoring toilet construction and usage.
On 2nd October 2019, the 150th birth anniversary of Mahatma Gandhi - all villages, Gram Panchayats, Districts, States and Union Territories in India declared themselves "open-defecation free" (ODF) by constructing over 100 million (10 Crore) toilets in rural India.
The core objectives of the first phase of the mission were to reduce open defecation and improve management of municipal solid waste in both urban and rural areas.
The mission was split into two: rural and urban.
In rural areas "SBM - Gramin" was financed and monitored through the Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation; whereas "SBM - urban" was overseen by the Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs.
SBM-Phase IIPhase 2 will be implemented between 2020-21 and 2024-25.
The second phase of the mission aims to sustain the open defecation free status and improve the management of solid and liquid waste.
Swachh Bharat Mission - Grameen (SBM-G)The Ministry of Jal Shakti reviewed the progress of the Swachh Bharat Mission - Grameen (SBM-G) under the Department of Drinking water and Sanitation.
The phase-2 of Swachh Bharat Mission Grameen (SBM-G) was announced by PM Modi in February, 2020 to emphasize upon the sustainability of achievements under phase-1 and to provide adequate facilities for Solid/Liquid & plastic waste management in rural India.
The phase-1 concluded in October 2019 with grand declaration of the Nation as Open Defecation Free (ODF).
The fund sharing pattern between Centre and States will be 90:10 for North-Eastern States and Himalayan States and UT of J&K; 60:40 for other States; and 100% for other Union Territories.
Swachh Survekshan Grameen 2021Department of Drinking Water and Sanitation (DDWS) of Jal Shakti Ministry launched Swachh Survekshan Grameen 2021 or Rural Cleanliness Survey 2021 under Swachh Bharat Mission (Grameen) Phase-II.
Before this, the Swachh Survekshan Grameen had been carried out in 2018 and 2019.
The Swachh Survekshan Urban 2021 is to be announced, it was introduced by the Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs (MoHUA) in 2016.
It is carried out by an expert agency to assess the state of hygiene, cleanliness and sanitation in rural India as a part of the Centre's initiative to award Open Defecation Free (ODF) Plus status to villages.
The weights to different elements of the SSG 2021 to rank the Districts are as below:
1) Direct Observation of sanitation at public places - 30%
2) Citizen's Feedback, including feedback from common citizens, key influencers at the village level and from citizens online using a mobile App - 35%
3) Service Level Progress on sanitation related parameters - 35%
Swachh Bharat Mission-Urban (SBM-U)Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs (MoHUA) launched various initiatives to make SBM-U a successful project. Some of them include, ODF, ODF+ and ODF++ Protocol:
1) ODF (Open Defecation Free): No visible faeces shall found in the environment and every household, as well as public/community institutions, should be using safe technology option for disposal of faeces.
2) ODF+ (Open Defecation Free Plus): Not a single person should be defecating and/or urinating in open. All community and public toilets should be properly maintained and cleaned.
3) ODF++ (Open Defecation Free Plus Plus): Proper treatment and management of faecal sludge/septage and sewage is safely managed and treated. There should be no discharge or dumping of untreated faecal sludge/septage and sewage in drains, water bodies or open areas.
4) Water PLUS protocol: The Water PLUS protocol aims to provide a guideline for cities and towns to ensure that no untreated wastewater is released into the environment thereby enabling sustainability of the sanitation value chain.
India's cleanest city, Indore, has been declared as India's first water plus city under the Swachh Survekshan 2021.
Swachh Survekshan Results 2020According to the Swachh Survekshan 2020, Indore in Madhya Pradesh retained its position as the cleanest city in India for the fourth consecutive year.
While Gujarat's Surat bagged the second spot, Maharashtra's Navi Mumbai ranked third.
Varanasi was adjudged the best Ganga town in the central government's cleanliness survey.