These current affairs are written in a easy to remember format and are useful for competitive exams like - UPSC Civil Services, UPPSC, BPSC, MPPPSC, State PSCs and other competitive examinations.
OneWeb is a global communications company that aims to deliver broadband satellite Internet around the world through its fleet of Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellites.
With a constellation of 648 satellites the company obtains the capacity to enable its Five to 50 service of offering internet connectivity to all regions north of 50 degrees latitude.
Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellites are positioned around 500km-2000km from earth, compared to stationary orbit satellites which are approximately 36,000km away.
LEO satellites travel at a speed of 27,000 kph and complete a full circuit of the planet in 90-120 minutes. As a result, individual satellites can only make direct contact with a land transmitter for a short period of time thus requiring massive LEO satellite fleets.
OneWeb's chief competitor is Starlink, a venture led by Elon Musk's SpaceX. Starlink currently has 1,385 satellites in orbit and has already started beta testing in North America and initiating pre-orders in countries like India.
Amazon is a newcomer to the space, with its Project Kuiper initiative announced in 2019.
Google launched its Loon project in 2013, using high-altitude balloons to create an aerial wireless network.
Science & Tech
What is "Wanchuwa festival" ?
The Wanchuwa festival is celebrated by Tiwa tribesmen to mark their good harvest.
It comes with songs, dances, a bunch of rituals and people clad in their native attires.
The people of Tiwa tribe associate the bountiful harvest with the higher power from nature. This takes the form of pigs' skulls and bones which act as deities and are preserved through many generations.
Tiwa also known as Lalung is indigenous community inhabiting the states of Assam and Meghalaya and are also found in some parts of Arunachal Pradesh and Manipur.
Art & Culture
According to NITI Aayog's Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI), Bihar has the maximum percentage of population living in poverty among all the States and the UTs.
Bihar also has the highest number of malnourished people followed by Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, and Chhattisgarh.
As per the index Bihar (51.91%) is followed by Jharkhand, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh and Meghalaya.
Kerala registered lowest population poverty levels (0.71%), followed by Puducherry, Lakshadweep, Goa and Sikkim.
This is India's first-ever national Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) measure, and is based on the reference period of 2015-16 of the National Family Health Survey (NFHS-4).
MPI uses the globally accepted and robust methodology developed by the Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative (OPHI) and the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP).
It utilise 12 key components which cover areas such as health and nutrition, education and standard of living.
According to Global MPI 2021, India's rank is 66 out of 109 countries.
The RBI has kept in limbo the proposal of its Internal Working Group (IWG) for granting banking licence to big corporate houses amid fears over connected lending and self-dealing if they are allowed in the banking space.
Connected lending involves the controlling owner of a bank giving loans to himself or his related parties and group companies at favourable terms and conditions.
Guidelines for "on tap" LicensingIn August 2016, RBI issued guidelines for Universal Banks in the Private Sector, as per the guidelines:
Individuals and companies, directly or indirectly connected with large industrial houses are permitted to participate in the equity of a new private sector bank up to 10 per cent and should not have controlling interest in the bank.
Such shareholders should not have any Director on the board of the bank on account of shareholder agreements or otherwise.
An 'on-tap' facility would mean the RBI will accept applications and grant license for banks throughout the year.
HistoryCorporate houses were active in the banking sector till five decades ago when the banks promoted by them were nationalised in the late 60s.
The sector was opened up again post liberalisation with the first round of licensing of private banks that was done in 1993.
There were two more rounds of licensing of banks in the private sector - in 2003-04 and 2013-14 - culminating with the on-tap licensing regime of universal banks since 2016.
The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) has proposed amendments to the Reserve Bank of India Act, 1934, which would enable it to launch a Central Bank Digital Currency (CBDC).
The government is alos planning to introduce a Bill on cryptocurrencies in the current Parliament session that seeks to prohibit all private cryptocurrencies in India.
The CBDC is a digital form of fiat currency which can be transacted using wallets backed by blockchain and is regulated by the central bank.
CBDCs enable the user to conduct both domestic and cross border transactions which do not require a third party or a bank.
El Salvador, a small coastal country in Central America, has become the first in the world to adopt Bitcoin, as legal tender.
Fiat money is a government-issued currency that is not backed by a commodity such as gold. Fiat money gives central banks greater control over the economy because they can control how much money is printed.
The "Zero Defect Zero Effect Scheme", launched in 2016 by the Ministry of MSME, is an integrated and comprehensive certification system.
The scheme accounts for productivity, quality, pollution mitigation, energy efficiency, financial status, human resource and technological depth including design and IPR in both products and processes.
Its mission is to develop and implement the "Zero Defect Zero Effect (ZED)" culture in India based on the principles of Zero Defect & Zero Effect.
Zero Defect: Zero non-compliance, Zero waste
Zero Effect: Zero air pollution, liquid discharge, solid waste
Zero wastage of natural resources
ZED Rating is a weighted average of the marks obtained on each parameter.
Based on the assessment, the MSME will be ranked as Bronze-Silver-Gold-Diamond-Platinum enterprises.
There are 50 parameters for ZED rating and additional 25 parameters for ZED Defence rating under ZED Maturity Assessment Model.
Quality Council of India (QCI) has been appointed as the National Monitoring & Implementing Unit (NMIU) for implementation of ZED.
The Quality Council of India (QCI) is a non-profit organisation registered under the Societies Registration Act of 1860.
GoI launched Jal Shakti Abhiyan (JSA) in 2019, a time bound campaign with a mission mode approach intended to improve water availability including ground water conditions in the water stressed blocks of 256 districts in India.
GoI in partnership with States, is implementing Jal Jeevan Mission (JJM) since August, 2019 to provide potable tap water supply of prescribed quality to every rural household in the country by 2024.
Ministry of Jal Shakti (MoJS) has taken up the "Jal Shakti Abhiyan: Catch the Rain" (JSA:CTR) with the theme "Catch the Rain - Where it Falls When it Falls" to cover all the blocks of all districts (rural as well as urban areas) across the country during 22nd March 2021 to 30th November 2021.
Ministry of Jal Shakti is implementing Atal Bhujal Yojana (Atal Jal), a Rs.6,000.00 crore Central Sector Scheme, for sustainable management of ground water resources with community participation. It is implemented in seven States viz. Gujarat, Haryana, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh.
National Aquifer Mapping and Management program (NAQUIM) is being implemented by MoJS as part of Ground Water Management and Regulation (GWM & R) Scheme, a Central Sector scheme.
The Central Ground Water Board (CGWB)'s Master Plan for Artificial Recharge to Groundwater - 2020 envisages construction of about 1.42 crore Rain water harvesting and artificial recharge structures in the Country with an estimated cost of about Rs. 1.33 Lakh Crores.
State Initiatives to Control Groundwater Depletion
"Mukhyamantri Jal Swavlamban Abhiyan" in Rajasthan
"Jalyukt Shibar" in Maharashtra
"Sujalam Sufalam" Abhiyan" in Gujarat
"Mission Kakatiya" in Telangana
"Neeru Chettu" in Andhra Pradesh
"Jal Jeevan Hariyali" in Bihar
"Jal Hi Jeevan" in Haryana