General Science Notes for IAS/PCS, Banking, IBPS, SSC & Railway etc

Overview of Biology and it's subdivisions

Overview of Biology and it's subdivisions

Biology is a study of living things and their vital processes, it deals with all the physicochemical aspects of life. Biology is subdivided into separate branches for conven...

Aug 24, 2022 · 1 min read
What are Microorganisms (Bacteria, Viruses, Fungi, Protozoa, Algae and Archaea) ?

What are Microorganisms (Bacteria, Viruses, Fungi, Protozoa, Algae and Archaea) ?

Microorganisms or microbes are microscopic organisms that exist as unicellular, multicellular, or cell clusters. Microorganisms are widespread in nature and are beneficial t...

Aug 26, 2022 · 8 min read
Basic structure of Cell (Gene, DNA, Chromosomes, Ribosomes, Mitochondria etc)

Basic structure of Cell (Gene, DNA, Chromosomes, Ribosomes, Mitochondria etc)

Cells are the basic building blocks of all living things, the human body is composed of trillions of cells. They provide structure for the body, take in nutrients from food,...

Aug 24, 2022 · 9 min read
Biofertilizers (Rhizobium, Azotobacter, Blue green algae etc)

Biofertilizers (Rhizobium, Azotobacter, Blue green algae etc)

Biofertilizers (जैव उर्वरक) are living microbes that enhance plant nutrition either by mobilizing or increasing nutrient availability in soils. Various microbial taxa includ...

Aug 24, 2022 · 2 min read
Anatomy (Skeleton, Digestion, Reproduction & Cardio systems etc.)

Anatomy (Skeleton, Digestion, Reproduction & Cardio systems etc.)

Chemically, the human body consists mainly of 'water (65 %)' and of organic compounds i.e., lipids, proteins, carbohydrates, and nucleic acids. Almost 99% of the mass of the ...

Aug 24, 2022 · 17 min read
Blood (RBC, WBC, Hemoglobin, Plasma & Blood Groups)

Blood (RBC, WBC, Hemoglobin, Plasma & Blood Groups)

Blood is a constantly circulating fluid providing the body with nutrition, oxygen, and waste removal. Blood is mostly liquid, with "numerous cells" and "proteins" suspended ...

Aug 24, 2022 · 6 min read
What is "Photosynthesis" ? (Process, Chlorophyll etc.)

What is "Photosynthesis" ? (Process, Chlorophyll etc.)

Photosynthesis is the process by which green plants and certain other organisms (algae, certain bacteria) transform light energy into chemical energy. During photosynt...

Aug 24, 2022 · 2 min read
Micronutrients: Vitamins and Minerals

Micronutrients: Vitamins and Minerals

Nutrients are compounds in foods essential to life and health, providing us with energy, the building blocks for repair and growth and substances necessary to regulate chemical processes. ...

Aug 26, 2022 · 8 min read
"Proteins" - Definition, Structure, & Classification

"Proteins" - Definition, Structure, & Classification

Basically, proteins are the fundamental building blocks and most abundant molecules present in living system, they forms about 80% of the living material in most organisms. ...

Aug 24, 2022 · 8 min read
What are "Carbohydrates" ?

What are "Carbohydrates" ?

They are called carbohydrates as they comprise carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen at their chemical level. The main function of carbohydrates is to provide energy and food ...

Aug 24, 2022 · 4 min read
Fats - Unsaturated fats and Saturated fats

Fats - Unsaturated fats and Saturated fats

Fats are one of the three main macronutrient groups in human diet, along with carbohydrates and ...

Aug 26, 2022 · 4 min read
Glands (Endocrine & Exocrine) and Hormones in Human Body

Glands (Endocrine & Exocrine) and Hormones in Human Body

A gland is an organ which produces and releases substances that perform a specific function in the body. Though we have many glands throughout the body, they fall into two t...

Aug 24, 2022 · 10 min read
Common Diseases & Diagnosis (Causative Agents, Symptoms & Treatment)

Common Diseases & Diagnosis (Causative Agents, Symptoms & Treatment)

A disease is a particular abnormal condition that negatively affects the structure or function of all or part of an organism, and that is not due to any immediate external injury. ...

Nov 21, 2022 · 1 min read
Biology miscellaneous (Evolution, Mammals, Amphibians, Insects etc.)

Biology miscellaneous (Evolution, Mammals, Amphibians, Insects etc.)

In the early 19th century Jean-Baptiste Lamarck (1744–1829) proposed his theory of the transmutation of species, the first fully formed theory of evolution. ...

Nov 20, 2022 · 10 min read
Atomic Structure & Theories (Dalton, Thomson & Rutherford)

Atomic Structure & Theories (Dalton, Thomson & Rutherford)

The atomic structure of an element refers to the constitution of its nucleus and the arrangement of the electrons around it. Primarily, the atomic structure of matter...

Aug 24, 2022 · 6 min read
Transformation & Reaction (Physical or Chemical)

Transformation & Reaction (Physical or Chemical)

A chemical reaction is a process that leads to the chemical transformation of one set of chemical substances to another. A transformation is a dramatic change in form or appearance....

Aug 24, 2022 · 2 min read
Acids, Bases, Salts and the pH Scale (Properties, Uses etc)

Acids, Bases, Salts and the pH Scale (Properties, Uses etc)

An acid is any hydrogen-containing substance that is capable of donating a proton (hydrogen ion) to another substance. A base is a molecule or ion able to ...

Aug 24, 2022 · 7 min read
Chemistry Miscellaneous (Elements, Compounds and Processes) - I

Chemistry Miscellaneous (Elements, Compounds and Processes) - I

A chemical compound is a chemical substance composed of many identical molecules (or molecular entities) composed of atoms from more than one element held together by chemical bonds. ...

Nov 23, 2022 · 1 min read
Chemistry Miscellaneous (Elements, Compounds and Processes) - II

Chemistry Miscellaneous (Elements, Compounds and Processes) - II

Hydrogen Hydrogen is rarely found in its pure form in the atmosphere, H2. In flame of pure hydrogen burning in air, the hydrogen (H2) reacts with oxygen (O2) to form w...

Aug 24, 2022 · 11 min read
Chemistry Miscellaneous (Elements, Compounds and Processes) - III

Chemistry Miscellaneous (Elements, Compounds and Processes) - III

More reactive metals have a greater tendency to lose electrons and form positive ions. Reactivity: Potassium > Sodium > Lithium > Barium > Strontium > Calcium > Magnes...

Nov 29, 2022 · 10 min read
Acid Rain : Causes, Effects and Solutions

Acid Rain : Causes, Effects and Solutions

Acid rain is a form of precipitation with acidic components, such as Sulfuric acid (H2SO4) or Nitric acid (HNO3) that fall to the ground from the a...

Aug 24, 2022 · 1 min read
Major physical quantities and their Units

Major physical quantities and their Units

The first table lists the base quantities used in the International System of Units to define the physical dimension of physical quantities for dimensional analysis. The second table lists the d...

Nov 21, 2022 · 1 min read
Phases of the Moon and Lunar eclipse  - New Moon, Full Moon

Phases of the Moon and Lunar eclipse - New Moon, Full Moon

As the Moon orbits around the Earth, the half of the Moon that faces the Sun lit up, the different shapes of the lit portion of the Moon can be seen from Earth and known as phases of the ...

Aug 24, 2022 · 2 min read
Electromagnetic Waves (Ultraviolet, infrared rays, X-rays etc)

Electromagnetic Waves (Ultraviolet, infrared rays, X-rays etc)

Electromagnetic waves include different types of waves: visible light, ultraviolet, infrared rays, X-rays and gamma-rays etc. Electromagnetic Spectrum is the classification o...

Aug 24, 2022 · 1 min read
Heat transfer (Conduction, Convection and Radiation)

Heat transfer (Conduction, Convection and Radiation)

Heat may be defined as energy in transit from a high temperature object to a lower temperature object. If two bodies at different temperatures are brought together, energy...

Aug 24, 2022 · 5 min read
What is solar eclipse ?

What is solar eclipse ?

A solar eclipse is a natural phenomenon, which occurs when the new Moon moves between the Sun and Earth and blocks sunlight coming from sun to cast a shadow on parts of Earth. The...

Aug 24, 2022 · 1 min read
What Is the Sun's Corona, Sunspots and Solar flares ?

What Is the Sun's Corona, Sunspots and Solar flares ?

The surface of the Sun has electrically charged gases that generate areas of powerful magnetic fields. The Sun's magnetic field goes through a cycle, called the so...

Aug 24, 2022 · 1 min read
Scientific Instruments (Apparatus) and their Usage

Scientific Instruments (Apparatus) and their Usage

A scientific instrument is a device or tool used for scientific purposes, including the study of both natural phenomena and theoretical research....

Aug 24, 2022 · 1 min read
Biofuels: Generations and Types (Bioethanol, Biodiesel Biogas etc)

Biofuels: Generations and Types (Bioethanol, Biodiesel Biogas etc)

Biofuel is any fuel that is derived from biomass - that is, plant or algae material or animal waste. Since such feedstock material can be replenished readily, biofuel is considered...

Aug 24, 2022 · 6 min read
Nitrogen cycle - Fixation, Nitrification & Denitrification etc

Nitrogen cycle - Fixation, Nitrification & Denitrification etc

Nitrogen cycle is the circulation and conversion of nitrogen into multiple chemical forms as it circulates from the atmosphere to the soil to organism and back into the atmosphere....

Aug 24, 2022 · 4 min read